Presentation on theme: "INTERVENTION WITH INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS Teri Lewis Oregon State University."— Presentation transcript:
INTERVENTION WITH INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS Teri Lewis Oregon State University
Elements of School-wide Discipline Plan 1.Common approach to discipline 2.Clear set of expected positive behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
Outcomes Associated with Suspension Number of suspensions/expulsions is increasing in many school districts. Being suspended/expelled is one of top three school-related reasons for leaving school (National Association of Child Advocates, 1998). Students who are suspended/expelled have increased likelihood of becoming involved in juvenile justice system.
Prerequisites for Developing a Continuum Behavior-based perspective Proactive teaching emphasis Data-guided decision making Group-based decision making Evidence-based practices Positive reinforcement of alternative behavior
Continuum of Possible Responses Acknowledge students exhibiting expected behavior Secure attention & redirect student to expected behavior Provide choice between expected behavior and staff-managed consequence Deliver staff-managed consequence Deliver office-managed consequence
Hierarchy Aversiveness Level IV Level III Level II Level I
When selecting a specific practice: Match practice to systems level SW - Setting - Group - Individual Match practice to context Skills, resources, values, etc. Base selection on student identified What, when, where, & why
Choose the practice that is least intrusive yet effective Balance Begin where you will be successful Match practice to student information What, when, where and why Adopt a function-based approach Gain social or item/activity, escape social or demand, automatic
Overview of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the contingent withdrawal/withholding of an aversive or presentation of a desired/pleasant stimuli to increase behavior. Positive reinforcement - present (Action=Give) Negative reinforcement- withdraw/withhold (Action=Take)
Overview: Punishment Punishment is the contingent withdrawal/withholding of reinforcement or presentation of an aversive to decrease behavior. Positive punishment - present (Action=Give) Negative punishment- withdraw/withhold (Action=Take)
A Matter of Perspective Always define the who and what you are interested in.
General Steps to Developing a Continuum Clearly defined problem and context e.g., hat in class, tardies, transitions, etc. Precorrection/preventive strategy for identified risk times or settings Consistent procedures e.g, all staff, settings, minor behaviors Teaching Opportunity focus on appropriate expectation
Activity Where is your school? What options to staff have available Status of office discipline referral process Share with group What are staff needs?
Overview of Strategies: Encourage Strategies to encourage appropriate behavior Premack Principle Token economy Contracting Group contingencies
Strategy 1: Premack Principle Using a high preferred activity to reinforce a low preferred activity (Grandmothers Rule) Typically, If...Then statements If you clean your room, then you can play Play Station If you eat a good dinner, then you can have dessert
Strategy 2: Token Economy Using a generalized reinforcer (token) that can be exchanged at a later time for another back-up reinforcer
Token Reinforcement Token=anything that can be dispensed, given contingent upon behavior Poker chips, points, stickers, weaving hoops, slips, etc. Back-up reinforcer= previously identified activities, objects, events, or privileges that have reinforcing value. Free time, food, computer, music, first in lunch line, etc
Establishing a Token Economy Identify target behaviors Define tokens Identify incentives for appropriate behavior Plan an exchange system Plan procedures for fading tokens Develop monitoring system Establish operating guidelines
Strategy 3: Contracting Written &/or verbal agreement or arrangement between two or more individuals that designates conditions, consequences, & responsibilities for improving behavioral performance
Elements 1. Behavior(s) for improvement 2. Level of improvement 3. Strategies for teacher, student, others 4. Individual responsibilities 5. Consequences for appropriate/inappropriate 6. Record keeping
Strategy 4: Group Contingencies Making consequences either contingent on group behavior or by letting an individual student’s behavior affect consequences for the entire group (Wolery, Bailey, & Sugai, 1988).
Three Variations Dependent Group-Oriented - Performance of selected members results in consequences for whole group Independent Group-Oriented - Each member same criterion consequences based on their performance Interdependent Group-Oriented - Each member same criterion but consequences based on group performance
Strategies to reduce Strategies to discourage inappropriate behavior: Reteaching
Strategy Five: Reteaching Signal that error has occurred State rule and expected behavior Ask student to state/show expected behavior Give positive feedback
Strategy Six: Off-Task Acknowledge students on-task Redirect student’s group Privately redirect student to task Stay with direction until on-task Acknowledge cooperation Continue to prevent off-task by acknowledging on-task
Strategy Seven: Disrespectful/provacative Speak privately, calmly, respectfully Identify the problem Minimize body language Present reasonable options (focus on expected behavior Be brief Give student chance to comply, acknowledge Do not become involved in escalation
Strategy Eight: Reducing Agitation Recognize agitation Focus on expected behavior Remind student of options Allow space Attend to other students Monitor from nearby Assist student to begin work (possibly independent task)
Strategy Nine: Response Cost The contingent withdrawal of specified amount of reinforcement that the student already has that result in a decrease in responding. Limited to where conditioned reinforcers (tokens) are used. Must have some level of positive reinforcement available. Examples...
Response Cost, cont. Advantages Strong and rapid decrease, possible long lasting effects, convenient/easy to use. Disadvantages Requires use of conditioned reinforcers, penalties may be abused, may generate side effects.
Using Response Cost Allow for “Cash-in” before starting. Keep students out of negative points. Communicate rules clearly. Be consistent. Reinforce appropriate behaviors. Have contingency plan if students refuse to give up tokens.
Strategy Ten: Time out from positive reinforcement Reducing inappropriate behavior by denying the student access, for a fixed period of time, to the opportunity to receive reinforcement. Three types Non-seclusionary (e.g., head on desk) Exclusionary (e.g., removal from activity) Seclusionary (e.g., removal from room)
Time Out, cont. Advantages Effective Disadvantages Negative, non-constructive contingency Suppression of other appropriate behavior Adverse public reaction Easily abused/misused
Using Time Out Remove reinforcement that may be supporting undesirable behavior. Avoid opportunities for self-stimulation. Use consistently. Keep duration short. Debrief.
Teach the procedure Establish criterion for getting out Record data Have adequate safe guards (seclusionary) remove dangerous objects, parent consent (written), explain all procedures, lights, rugs, allow teacher observation.
Guidelines: Check your own emotions In general, Stay calm Be aware of physical proximity Remember to acknowledge attempts, compliance, etc. Give yourself an option to “cool down” Have a plan and know when you need to use it Remember don’t have to handle every situation right then
Behavior v. Crisis Intervention Behavior management involves a long-term plan to increase student independence and success. Involves arranging environments, teaching new skills and consistent adult responses. Crisis management involves safety. Know and follow district/county procedures for crisis intervention procedures.
In General… Work to prevent problem behavior “positive time-in environment” Remain calm and respectful Address issues privately Follow-through Be consistent, no surprises Preteach time-out or other procedures
Staff Development Content What information How presented Activities (e.g., role play, video, vignettes) Assessment Guess & Check, FACTS, … On-going support Request for assistance Range of types/levels of assistance Materials and resources (e.g., Tool kit)