Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Overview of CBT 931 Death and Dying Complete course available at www.emsonline.net.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Overview of CBT 931 Death and Dying Complete course available at www.emsonline.net."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Overview of CBT 931 Death and Dying Complete course available at

2 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Introduction This presentation discusses the withholding of resuscitation efforts from patients with terminal conditions who do not have written DNR orders. These guidelines have been implemented by King County, Washington and are not necessarily practiced elsewhere. If you are an EMT outside King County, please consult with your agency's medical director regarding withholding resuscitation.

3 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Changes in society require an expanded knowledge of death and dying Aging of the population More terminal illnesses and chronic health problems Shorter hospital stays Improved technology that allow the chronically ill to return home Introduction, continued

4 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS A greater understanding of practices surrounding death and dying will increase your level of comfort in dealing with these diverse situations. Introduction, continued

5 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Terms advance directive — Instructions, usually in writing, that address an individual’s medical treatment preferences. biological death — Point at which brain cells start to die generally after 4 to 6 minutes without oxygen. clinical death — Moment at which heartbeat and breathing stop. dependent lividity — A reddish-blue discoloration of the skin resulting from the gravitational pooling of blood in the blood vessels evident in the lower lying parts of the body in the position of death.

6 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Terms DNR order — A do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is a document that informs medical personnel not to attempt a resuscitation. palliative care — Providing measures that relieve or soothe the symptoms of a disease or disorder without effecting a cure, for example, providing oxygen therapy. Physician’s Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST) — A specific type of advance directive that communicates the treatment and resuscitation wishes of seriously ill patients. rigor mortis — A stiffening, usually occurring several hours after death.

7 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Cessation of Heartbeat In general, three steps occur in the dying process: If cardiac arrest occurs first process of dying is rapid With other causes: May occur over hours, days May become dehydrated May have irregular, agonal or noisy respirations May have seizure activity May lose control of bowel, bladder Cessation of heartbeat and breathing 1 1

8 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Cessation of heartbeat and breathing Dependent lividity Cessation of Heartbeat, continued In general, three steps occur in the dying process: A few minutes after circulation stops: Blood begins to pool and settle Appears as blotchy black-and-blue or reddish marks

9 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS A few hours after death: Muscle cells contract and stay contracted Stiffening begins with small muscles (fingers, neck and jaw), progresses to the extremities and pelvis After 12 hours: Degradation of protein in muscles Body becomes limp Cessation of heartbeat and breathing Dependent lividity Rigor mortis Cessation of Heartbeat, continued In general, three steps occur in the dying process:

10 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS In some cases the decision whether or not to start resuscitation is easy. Assess the Scene

11 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS When the situation is less clear, the first arriving unit should take the following actions: Survey scene for possible hazard or crime Check for ABCs, injuries incompatible with life Check for dependent lividity and rigor mortis if unwitnessed arrest or unknown down time Assess the Scene, continued Begin resuscitation if you aren’t sure whether or not to proceed.

12 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS A thorough scene survey includes: Ambient temperature Location where patient was found Position/anything unusual noted Potential insulators that complicate the determination of "down time" Presence of hospital equipment Assess the Scene, continued

13 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Gather information from witnesses or family members: Witnessed or unwitnessed arrest Time last seen CPR attempts by witnesses and quality of CPR Preceding events (complaints, s/s, activity) Medical history Baseline level of functioning Physician and hospital affiliation DNR orders, POLST or patient/family wishes History and Physical Exam

14 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS When conducting physical exam, note: General condition of body (emaciated, well- nourished, jaundiced, etc.) Body temperature Signs of trauma Signs of death (dependent lividity, rigor mortis) History and Physical Exam, cont.

15 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS You may withhold or stop resuscitation if any of the following are present: Injuries incompatible with life Advance directive stating resuscitation be withheld Dependent lividity, rigor mortis Compelling reasons to withhold resuscitation Withholding Resuscitation

16 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS If a resuscitation effort has been initiated and you are provided with an advance directive or compelling reasons that such an effort should be withheld, STOP. Withholding Resuscitation

17 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS You should not start CPR when: A patient’s injuries are incompatible with life such as decapitation A patient or family member presents an advance directive Obvious signs of lividity Compelling reasons Withholding Resuscitation, cont.

18 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Patients who are mentally competent have the right to refuse medical care, including resuscitation. Patients who are dying have the same rights. Withholding Resuscitation, cont.

19 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Compelling Reasons Compelling reasons permit EMS personnel to withhold resuscitation from a patient in cardiac arrest when two criteria are BOTH present: End stage of a terminal condition Written or verbal information from family, caregivers, or patient stating that patient did not want resuscitation

20 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Compelling Reasons, continued You must document compelling reasons when they are used as a basis for withholding resuscitation.

21 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Palliative Care You can make a dying patient more comfortable with: Appropriate positioning Suctioning or controlling bleeding Contacting the patient’s private physician or hospice Requesting a medic unit if you feel pain management is needed The family may benefit from your support and assistance.

22 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Why Families Call 911 Reasons why people call 911 for an expected death: Confusion Uncertainty Guilt Inappropriate information from other agencies Need for confirmation of death

23 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Legal and Ethical Concerns Washington State By following guidelines in this presentation, you are protected from legal liability by RCW when you act in good faith and in accordance with your training.

24 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Legal and Ethical Concerns, cont. What if family members disagree? A signed DNR order reflecting a patient’s wishes, supported by a family member who has power of attorney, is strong support for withholding resuscitation, even if other family members disagree. A verbal statement from a family member who has power of attorney or a close relative should also be given priority over someone not as close.

25 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Three types of advance directives: DNR Order POLST Living Will Originates and is signed by physician AND patient or surrogate Generally for people near the end of their natural lives Deals primarily with CPR/resuscitation EMS personnel may honor DNR orders Advance Directives

26 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Three types of advance directives: DNR Order POLST Living Will Advance Directives, continued Originates and is signed by physician AND patient or surrogate Generally for people near the end of their natural lives Deals with both CPR/resuscitation and other types of treatments EMS personnel may honor

27 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Easily obtained; no physician signature required Generally for adults at any point in their lives Does not deal with emergent treatment, but rather, treatment of future condition EMS may take into account as expression of patient’s wishes to invoke compelling reasons Advance Directives, continued Three types of advance directives: DNR Order POLST Living Will

28 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Summary You can determine whether or not to begin resuscitation by assessing pulse and breathing and checking for lividity and rigor mortis. Do not initiate resuscitation if: Injuries are incompatible with life A valid advance directive is present Lividity/rigor mortis are present Compelling reasons to withhold resuscitation

29 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Summary, continued You may withhold resuscitation if there are compelling reasons; two criterion must be met: End stage of a terminal condition Written or verbal information from family, patient, or caregivers stating that patient did not want resuscitation Document compelling reasons when they are used as the basis for withholding resuscitation.

30 Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Summary, continued When there is doubt—initiate resuscitation. Don't make assumptions about the family's desire for resuscitative efforts without asking.


Download ppt "Copyright 2009 Seattle/King County EMS Overview of CBT 931 Death and Dying Complete course available at www.emsonline.net."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google