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The Negative Power of Prejudice with Vocabulary in Context.

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1 The Negative Power of Prejudice with Vocabulary in Context

2 1) Which would best describe this article? a. subjectiveb. objective c. historical fictiond. realistic fiction The article we read in class is not a story. It does not have plot elements like setting, conflict, rising action, and resolution. Therefore it is not an example of historical fiction or realistic fiction. This leaves us with the choices subjective or objective. In the first marking period, we explained the difference between the two types of writing. Objective writing includes Only the facts. Subjective writing includes Some opinions. Here is the part of the article that should provide your answer to this question: Paragraph 2 In my humble opinion, one of the most treasured things about human beings is the inherent intelligence that we are all born with -- our ability to constantly learn, make independent decisions, and develop as individuals. Ironically, one of the worst things, again in my humble opinion, is our ability to form opinions.

3 2) In paragraph 3, the author uses the metaphor “dark side” a. to imply a negative effect b. to imply a positive effect c. for humord. to help define the word opinion Paragraph 3 The problem with our opinions, and the reason why I say they can be one of the worst things about human beings, is that they can quickly and unknowingly cross that line to the "dark side" and become prejudices. And prejudices are widely thought to be the reason behind events such as wars, conflicts, and hurt feelings. In this portion of paragraph three, the writer is certainly not attempting to be humorous. He defines the word opinion in the next paragraph. Therefore, we can eliminate choices C and D. So, is the “dark side” a positive thing or a negative thing? Look at what he’s saying. Opinions can sometimes lead to prejudices, and prejudices can lead to wars, conflicts, and hurt feelings. Wars, conflicts, and hurt feelings are all negative things.

4 3) In paragraph 4, the author a shows opinions are positive, but prejudices are negative. b. shows prejudices are positive, but opinions are negative. c. attempts to show definitions of opinions and prejudices are different. d. attempts to show definitions of opinions and prejudice are similar. Paragraph 4 The Oxford Dictionary defines opinion as "a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge." The same authoritative publication states that a prejudice is a "preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience," or "dislike, hostility or unjust behavior deriving from preconceived and unfounded opinions." You can immediately see how closely linked opinions and prejudices are. Look at the last sentences of the paragraph. There’s your answer. In addition, you should have highlighted the similar portions of the two definitions.

5 4) Paragraph 5 draws similarities between a. instinctively coded humans and transference. b. transference in migration patters and transference with prejudices. c. opinions in a smaller group and opinions in a full community. d. relationships and social structures. Paragraph 5 Humans are instinctively coded to form relationships with other humans, and we have evolved in complex social structures. The problem with such structures is that they can breed certain behaviors through transference from one person to another, one group to another. One example of this is migratory patterns where you will find ever-increasing communities of people who have traveled from the same country or place and ended up "setting up home" near one another. Transference also occurs with prejudices whereby a single prejudice can spread throughout a community or other group and become a powerful view of the people. Here the author explains how behaviors can transfer (transference) between people or groups. His first example is how people migrate from one country to the same area inside of another country. Just as moving patterns can be transferred among a population, so can prejudices.

6 5) In the article, the author does all of the following except a. define prejudice b. suggest people can reduce negative prejudices c. present a technique for reducing negative prejudices d. identify which people are the most prejudice From Paragraph 4 The same authoritative publication states that a prejudice is a "preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience," or "dislike, hostility or unjust behavior deriving from preconceived and unfounded opinions." From Paragraph 7 People have the ability to change opinions and prejudices based on other people, their actions, and importantly, their opinions and prejudices also. From Paragraph 8 We can reduce the negative prejudices by rekindling the equilibrium between humans.

7 6) The author infers which cause and effect? a. People move to areas close together, so we will never defeat prejudice. b. When a person forms an opinion, he or she becomes prejudice. c. If people learn to move “beyond the blur,” they can reduce negative prejudices. d. Because people move “beyond the blur,” we will never defeat prejudice. Paragraph 10 How do we establish common ground with someone we cannot relate to, feel threatened by, or uncomfortable with? Using a technique that I call "beyond the blur," you ignore the elements of people that can blind us or cause prejudice. The sorts of things I am talking about are race, color, religion, hair style, fashion sense, the car they drive or the house they live in, etc. By looking beyond the blur of these superficial elements, it is possible to strip away the majority of things that are the basis for many prejudices.

8 Vocabulary in Context New words can be “figured out” by reading carefully. Look at the part of speech Look for familiar roots or word parts. Look at the context.

9 1) Based on the context, we can infer the word inherent in paragraph two probably means a. already existing b learned c. negatived. opinionated In my humble opinion, one of the most treasured things about human beings is the inherent intelligence that we are all born with -- our ability to constantly learn, make independent decisions, and develop as individuals. Ironically, one of the worst things, again in my humble opinion, is our ability to form opinions. Inherent describes the noun intelligence. Humans are not born with negative or opinionated intelligence.

10 2) The prefixes in and im can sometimes mean not. The word infinite in paragraph three probably means? a. unending or not specificb. a specific number c. not finishedd. ridiculous We form opinions based on a near infinite number of reasons and experiences, and they are often very personal to each of us. So is the importance that we place upon those opinions. This is illustrated by our level of passion when we discuss them with our friends, family, or peers. Infinite describes the number of reasons. The adjective finite means measureable or having limits.

11 3) Based on the context, we can infer the term “instinctively coded” in paragraph five probably means a. covered with instinct b. born good at math c. naturally programmedd. originally friendly Humans are instinctively coded to form relationships with other humans, and we have evolved in complex social structures. The problem with such structures is that they can breed certain behaviors through transference from one person to another, one group to another. An instinct is a tendency or pattern of actions that exists naturally. We are not coded, or programmed, to be naturally good at math.

12 4) The prefix trans can sometimes mean across. The word transference in paragraph five probably means a. moving or passing b. sitting or remaining c. judging or assessingd. caring and loving The problem with such structures is that they can breed certain behaviors through transference from one person to another, one group to another. One example of this is migratory patterns where you will find ever- increasing communities of people who have traveled from the same country or place and ended up "setting up home" near one another. Transference also occurs with prejudices whereby a single prejudice can spread throughout a community or other group and become a powerful view of the people. The root of transference is transfer.

13 5) Based on the context, we can infer the word repercussions in paragraph eight probably means a. feelingsb. outcomes c. opinionsd. causes So, how can we start to reduce prejudice and the negative repercussions it causes? The answer is relatively simple to state, but far harder to put into practice and maintain. Paragraph 3 And prejudices are widely thought to be the reason behind events such as wars, conflicts, and hurt feelings. Paragraph 6 In extreme cases, prejudices can be the cause of bullying, violence, or other crimes. These are all stated, previously in the article, as results of prejudice.

14 6) Based on the context, we can infer the term rekindling the equilibrium in paragraph eight probably means a. lighting candlesb. renewing an equal balance c. finding ways we’re differentd. changing prejudices We can reduce the negative prejudices by rekindling the equilibrium between humans. Effectively, a "people-based prejudice" is someone thinking they are better (or worse) than someone else, or they feel threatened by someone else or just uncomfortable with someone else. It's human nature to defend when we feel insecure, and a prejudice could start as a form of defense mechanism. By establishing common ground from where we can view each other as equals we will take steps toward a more harmonious society… Can you see the word equal in equilibrium?

15 7) Based on the context, we can infer the word insecure in paragraph nine probably means a. sick or unhealthyb. strong or powerful c. unsafe or unsure d. relaxed and comfortable Effectively, a "people-based prejudice" is someone thinking they are better (or worse) than someone else, or they feel threatened by someone else or just uncomfortable with someone else. It's human nature to defend when we feel insecure, and a prejudice could start as a form of defense mechanism. By establishing common ground from where we can view each other as equals and not place importance on asserting such prejudices, we will take steps toward a more harmonious society and reduce conflicts or anger that exists.

16 8) The suffix ous and sometimes means like or pertaining to. The word harmonious in paragraph nine probably means a. musicalb. prejudice c. hurtfuld. agreeable It's human nature to defend when we feel insecure, and a prejudice could start as a form of defense mechanism. By establishing common ground from where we can view each other as equals and not place importance on asserting such prejudices, we will take steps toward a more harmonious society and reduce conflicts or anger that exists. Taking those steps would naturally create a positive result.

17 9) Based on the context, we can infer the word superficial in paragraph ten probably means a. existing on the surfaceb. reflecting a person’s true character c. showing faultsd. unfortunate but true Using a technique that I call "beyond the blur," you ignore the elements of people that can blind us or cause prejudice. The sorts of things I am talking about are race, color, religion, hair style, fashion sense, the car they drive or the house they live in, etc. By looking beyond the blur of these superficial elements, it is possible to strip away the majority of things that are the basis for many prejudices. Which option would best describe these elements of a person?

18 10) Based on the context, we can infer the word dissection in paragraph twelve probably means a. putting ideas togetherb. breaking into smaller pieces c. transitioning negative prejudicesd. creating positive opinions Instead, focus on what is similar to your own self. Think about breaking down the person into small pieces in an attempt to find those things that you can relate to. They live and breathe, just as you do. They need food and shelter, just as you do. They get scared, just as you do. They feel pain, just as you do. They want to live happy, just as you do. When you practice this mental dissection of moving beyond the blur, you establish common ground. You can then transition negative prejudices that can create "hostility or unjust behavior" into positive opinions. This answer is written right in the text.


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