Assistive Technology Introduction Definitions of Assistive Technologies Disabilities Categorized Specific Terms Help States Define Disabilities 4 Major Categories Descriptions of Various Types of Assistive Technologies Legal Requirements Laws and Historical Background Eligibility Requirements Roles of School Districts and Teachers Roles/Responsibilities of MTTs and Assistive Technologies Resources for MTTs Conclusion
Intro Definitions and Descriptions of Various Types of Assistive Technologies
Introduction According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics, and Statistics Administration about 8.5% of 301 million people living in the United States have at least one disability that may negatively effect and create a barrier in their ability to use a computer or to access the Internet. (Crow, 2008) These statistics come as no surprise to the U.S. government which have been involved in promoting change needed towards resolving such dilemmas. In 1975 the United States government established the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act advocating for the entitlement of people with disabilities and their families whereby they could attain many of America’s educational opportunities. Consequently as a result of “IDEA”, all students should in fact be provided access to a broad range of assistive technologies thereby allowing multiple pathways to learning. “AT” makes it possible for individuals which perhaps are faced with a broad range of disabilities to become more self-sufficient, and confident individuals.
What is Assistive Technology? Assistive Technology has been defined in variety of ways, such as being tools, strategies, simple or complex devices which may be commercially manufactured or independently produced but at the same time are devices aimed with a purpose of ultimately increasing, maintaining, or improving the functionality of individuals with disabilities, (Lewis, 1994). “AT” can essentially be said to be any device which will make it possible for individuals with disabilities to be able to do more for themselves.
14 Primary Terms Under IDEA Specific Terms Guide States in Defining Disabilities & Eligibility 1.Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD 2.Deaf-Blindness 3.Deafness 4.Developmental Delay (DD) 5.Emotional Disturbance 6.Hearing Impairment a)Deafness b)Hearing Loss 7.Intellectual Disability (formerly Mental Retardation) 8.Severe and/or Multiple Disabilities 9.Orthopedic Impairment 10.Other Health Impairment 11.Learning Disabilities (LD) 12.Speech and Language Impairments 13.Traumatic Brain Injury 14.Blindness/ Visual Impairment
4 Major Disability Categories Visual Impairments – Assistive Technology for Vision Hearing Impairments – AT for Hearing Motor Impairments – AT for Communication Cognitive Impairments – AT for Learning and Studying
“AT” In Cognitive & Motor Disabilities Cognitive & Motor Disability Traumatic Brain Injury, Learning/Speech Impairment Difficulties with reading comprehension. Language expression, speech is not understandable. Recorded Material Hand-held Scanners Print or Picture Schedule Highlighter Synthesized Speech: JAWS, outSPOKEN (computer text and graphics to voice) DeltaTalker Bluetooth Right-Hand iFrog Communication Board (Board Builder) ClickAid AT Devices For: Learning/Studyi ng Augmentative/ Alternative Communications Systems Assistive Technology Products http://www.abledata.com/
“AT” In Sensory Disabilities Sensory Disability Blind/Low Vision, Deaf/HoH Impairment Difficulty hearing no hearing. Visual difficulties or not able to see. Synthesized Speech: JAWS, outSPOKEN (computer text and graphics to voice), Screen Readers Adaptive Software + Word Processing Programs = Eye Relief, VisAbility, Zoom Text Text Telephones (TTY’s)/TTD Accessaphone IP-TTY DB Communicator, Dialect 3HD Closed Captioning Recorded Material Braille, Freedom Machine Large Print Books, Pen/Pencil & Paper AT Devices For: Hearing Vision Assistive Technology Products http://www.abledata.com/
“AT” In Mobility Disability Mobility Disability Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke Impairments Difficulty hearing or can’t hear at all. Visual difficulties or not able to see. Speech Recognition ‘point-of-glaze’ technologies = Eye-Gaze Switches T-bar Assist w/typing Joysticks Alternative keyboards Book Holders AT Devices For: Mobile Arm Supports Wheelchair Clamp-on desks Assistive Technology Products http://www.abledata.com/
“AT” Classroom Student unable to see or having difficulty seeing. Student with hearing difficulties or no hearing. Student with language expression difficulties, speech not comprehendible. Student having reading comprehension difficulties.
“AT” Classroom Student unable to use computer, unable to comply with academic tasks. Student with writing and/or writing composition. Student with reading comprehension problems. Student with difficulties keeping-up scheduled math lessons.
Legal Requirements Laws and Historical Background http://search.creativecommons.org/#
Laws EAHCA (Education for All Handicapped Children Act) IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act) ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) 504 (Rehabilitation Act Section 504) TRADC (Technology Related Assistance with Disabilities Act) ATA (Assistive Technology Act) http://search.creativecommons.org/#
EAHCA EAHCA (Education for All Handicapped Children Act) – Passed in 1975 – Codified access to pubic education for students with disabilities – Amendment in 2004, Renamed IDEA
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act Federal Regulations (IDEA): §§300.5, 300.6, 300.308, 300.346 – Originated as EAHCA in 1975 – Amendment in 2004 – Entitlement for people with disabilities and their families making education opportunities possible to all. FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education)
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act – 1990 Protects rights of persons with disabilities – Title II Applicable to Education Student and young children not eligible under Special Education have right to Assistive Technology.
Section 504 (Rehabilitation Act) Qualified individuals with a physical or mental impairment limited by major life activities. Schools prohibited from discrimination of student’s in participation and enjoyment of activities or programs despite of their handicap or physical/mental impairments. All education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance will be held liable to abide by requirements imposed by this act.
TRADA Technology Related Assistance with Disabilities Act – Passed 1988 – Fund Development for Individuals w/Disabilities Consumer Information Training Programs
ATA Assistive Technology ACT – Replaced TRADA in 1998 Alternate funding for “AT” grants, national professional development “AT” accessible to general education curriculum
“AT” Historically Sholes & Glidden typewriter 1873 Hearing Aid Invented-1916 Help the hearing impaired. http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-history.html http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/did/timeline /
1935 American Foundation for the Blind Publishes the first issue of Talking Books Bulletin, later changed to Talking Book Topics. Phonograph invented by Edison Earlier version of the Talking Machine Used for recording or dictation later in the early 20 th century. AT Historically (cont.) Phonograph http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audiobook
“AT” devices have been around for quite some time yet newer advanced devices continue to be invented. AT Historically (cont.)
Eligibility Requirements Roles of School Districts & Teachers
Roles of School Districts & Teachers Eligibility Requirements Public Schools Accommodate Disabled Learners It’s the law!
Roles of School Districts & Teachers Eligibility Requirements Rehabilitation Act – 1973 Section 504 – Individual Instruction Plan Accommodate Students With IEP or Without IEP
Roles of School Districts & Teachers Eligibility Requirements ADA Disabilities = No Unfairness
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements IDEA Curriculum – Disabled Students – Involved – Student Progress
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements IDEA Free appropriate public education State must provide in or out of school environment Least restrictive environments
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements TRADA 1988 Amended 1994 Technology-Related Assistance for individuals with Disabilities Act “AT” = Need Disabled People
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements “AT” Make It Available!! “AT” in IEP “AT” made available wherever the student goes!
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements Go, Go, Go, IEP TEAM!! – Teacher – Special Ed Teacher – Parents – Others
Roles of School Districts and Teachers Eligibility Requirements NO EXCUSES! Responsibility rests with the State. Insuring compliance with laws!
Roles of School Districts & Teachers Eligibility Requirements STATE – State Law (Texas Education Code) §30.0015 Comply with ACTS – ADA – IDEA; etc. State School Districts – Comply – Responsible Teachers – Comply – Responsible
Roles & Responsibilities of MTTs and Assistive Technologies Resources for MTTs Conclusion
Roles of an Master Technology Teacher (MTT) Texas Educator Standards DOMAIN II – TECHNOLOGY-ENHANCED TEACHING AND LEARNING Competency 8 The Master Technology Teacher knows how to implement and assess technology-enhanced instruction to meet the diverse needs and abilities of all students.
Roles of an MTT (cont.) MTT Role Dictated by State Standards Ensure Implementation of IDEA Policies STANDARD IV Assist school district Serves as resource Locates/Integrates Assistive Technologies
Roles of an MTT (cont) STANDARD IV 2 Components 1.MTT Knows 2.MTT Can Do » 4.1k » 4.2k » 4.3k » 4.4k » 4.5k
Roles of an MTT (cont.) MTT Implements 5 Duties 1.4.1s 2.4.2s 3.4.3s 4.4.4s 5.4.5s
Resources for MTTs Texas Assistive Technology Network (TATN) – http://www.texasat.net/ http://www.texasat.net/ – http://www.texasat.net/docs/Legal.Persp.Guides.pdf http://www.texasat.net/docs/Legal.Persp.Guides.pdf Texas Center for Disability Studies – http://techaccess.edb.utexas.edu/resource.html http://techaccess.edb.utexas.edu/resource.html
Conclusion Research indicates that Assistive Technology is a key ingredient in our education system. The MTT educators also play an essential part in our education system thereby ensuring that Assistive Technology is located and made accessible to students with disabilities. Undoubtedly, the importance of Assistive Technology in education can ultimately open new learning pathways for students with disabilities by allowing them the same right to an appropriate education as those of their classmates.
Works Cited ABLEDATA Information Center http://www.abledata.com/ Assistive Technology in Texas Schools Series. http://www.texasat.net/docs/Admin.Persp.Suppl.Hndts.pdf Brodwin, M. G., Star, T., & Cardoso, E. (2004). Computer assistive technology for people who have disabilities: Computer adaptions and modifica. Journal of Rehabilitation, 70 (3). Center for Implementing Technology in Education http://www.cited.org/index.aspx Crow, Kevin L. Four Types of Disabilities: Their impact on online Learning. TechTrends. Vol. 52, Number 1. January/February 2008. Department of Education. Part II 34 CFR Parts 300 and 30. Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities; Final Rule. Aug. 2006 http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/special.ed/rules/pdf/idea06fr.pdf Disability Info.gov http://www.disabilityinfo.gov/digov-public/public/DisplayPage.do?parentFolderId=5347
Works Cited Dyal, Allen; Carpenter, Laura Bowden; Wright, James V. "ASSISTIVE ECHNOLOGY: WHAT EVERY SCHOOL LEADER SHOULD KNOW." Education. 3 2009. 556. eLibrary. ProQuest LLC. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS - BROWNSVILLE. 15 Nov 2009.. Education, D. o. (2006, August 14). Assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities and preschool grants for children with disabilities. Federal Register 34 CFR Parts 200 and 201, 46540-46844. Great Schools, Involved Parents, Successful Kids. http://www.greatschools.net/LD.topic?content=1541 Hardman, Michael L; Dawson, Shirley. "The impact of federal public policy on curriculum and instruction for students with disabilities in the general Ccassroom." Preventing School Failure. 2 2008. 5. eLibrary. ProQuest LLC. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS - BROWNSVILLE. 15 Nov 2009.. Hoffman-Peak, Hillary. "A matrimonial practitioner's guide to special education law." American Journal of Family Law. 01 Jul 2009. 90. eLibrary. ProQuest LLC. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS - BROWNSVILLE. 15 Nov 2009.. IDEA—the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act http://www.nichcy.org/Laws/IDEA/Pages/Default.aspx Lewis, R.B. (1993). Special Education Technology. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Categories of Disabilities Under IDEA Law. http://www.nichcy.org/Disabilities/Categories/Pages/Default.aspx
Works Cited Netherton, David L; Deal, Walter F. "Assistive technology in the classroom." Technology Teacher. 1 (2006): 10. eLibrary. ProQuest LLC. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS - BROWNSVILLE. 15 Nov 2009.. Office of Special Education Programs http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section. A Guide to Disability Rights Laws. Sept. 2005. http://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm#anchor65310 Reed, Penry R. PhD. A Resource Guide For Teachers and Administrators About Assistive Technology. Sept. 2007. http://www.wati.org/content/supports/free/pdf/ATResourceGuideDec08.pdf SBEC (2007) Preparation Manual: 086 Master Technology Teacher. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from http://www.texes.ets.org/assets/pdf/testprep_manuals/mttprepmanual.pdfhttp://www.texes.ets.org/assets/pdf/testprep_manuals/mttprepmanual.pdf Texas Education Agency. (2008). Special Education in Texas. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/special.ed/astech/http://www.tea.state.tx.us/special.ed/astech/ U.S. Department of Education. (2005). Sec. 300.5 Assistive Technology Device. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E6http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E6 U.S. Department of Education. (2006). Sec. 300.6 Assistive Technology Service. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/%2Croot%2Cregs%2C300%2CA%2C300%252E5%2Chttp://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/%2Croot%2Cregs%2C300%2CA%2C300%252E5%2C