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The first human being has been cloned!

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Presentation on theme: "The first human being has been cloned!"— Presentation transcript:

1 The first human being has been cloned!

2 Know: Want to know: Learnt:
Cloning Know: Want to know: Learnt:

3 Clone Genetic Modification Nuclear Transfer Inheritance
Keyword Meaning Clone Changing the genetic characteristics of an organism by manipulating genes and introducing them into DNA. Genetic Modification In this technique, the nucleus from a body cell of the adult is removed and implanted into an egg cell that has had the nucleus removed. Nuclear Transfer A genetic copy of another single organism, or group of cells Inheritance A term used to describe the passing of genes from parents to offspring

4 1. Inheritance A term used to describe the passing of genes from parents to offspring.

5 2. Genetic Modification Changing the genetic characteristics of an organism by manipulating genes and introducing them into DNA.

6 A genetic copy of another single organism, or group of cells
3. Clone A genetic copy of another single organism, or group of cells

7 Most common method of artificial cloning.
4. Nuclear Transfer Most common method of artificial cloning. In this technique, the nucleus from a body cell of the adult is removed and implanted into an egg cell that has had the nucleus removed.

8 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Cloning
Cloning a single adult animal, especially a mammal, is very complicated. The most famous animal clone is Dolly the sheep, who was born on 5 July 1996. Dolly was not the first animal clone, but the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. Photo credit: Roslin Institute

9 Cloning how is it done? Hints
Every cell in an organism contains all the genetic information needed to make an organism.

10 What is nuclear transfer?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Cloning Dolly was created using a technique called nuclear transfer. In this technique, the nucleus (i.e. DNA) from a body cell of the adult is removed. This nucleus is then inserted into an egg cell that has had its own nucleus removed. Photo credit: Roslin Institute The egg cell is then made to divide and develop like a normal fertilized egg. The important difference is that it only contains the DNA from one, rather than two, animals.

11 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Cloning
Teacher notes This interactive experiment illustrates how Dolly the sheep was created by nuclear transfer. Some interesting facts that might be worth pointing out: Dolly was born on 5 July She died in 2003, aged six and a half, after developing progressive lung disease – sheep can normally live to 11 or 12 years of age It took 277 attempts to successfully create Dolly Three ewes were involved in creating Dolly: a six-year-old Finn Dorset ewe whose DNA was cloned, a Poll Dorset ewe who donated the egg cell, and a Scottish Blackface ewe who acted as the surrogate mother Dolly was not the first cloned animal – she was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell Nuclear transfer was first used in 1952 to study the development of frogs. In the 1980s, it was used to clone cattle and sheep using cells taken from early embryos.

12 Task Describe the steps of cloning using diagrams.
To help you have been given key words for each step: Adult cell Nutrients Unfertilised egg cell Nucleus Removed Fused Surrogate Extension- Write down a list of possible applications of cloning and the risks associated with it.

13

14 Cloning has Many Uses Could help with the shortage of organs for transplants. Study of animal clones could lead to greater understanding of the development of the embryo and of ageing. Preserve endangered species.

15 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Cloning
Teacher notes This headlines activity can be used to explore media reports about cloning. Students could get into groups and identify bias in the headlines. They could then explore the reasons for the bias and perhaps predict what type of newspaper might run headlines like these. There are no correct answers for this activity.

16 Issues Surrounding Cloning
Cloning mammals leads to a ‘reduced gene pool’- this means there are fewer different alleles in a population. If populations are all closely related and a new disease appears, they could all be wiped out-because there may be no allele in the population giving resistance to the disease.

17 Issues Surrounding Cloning...
Cloned mammals mightn’t live as long- Dolly the sheep only lived for 6 years She was put down because she had lung disease and she also had arthritis, these diseases were more usual in older sheep. Dolly was cloned from an older sheep, so its been suggested her ‘true age’ may have been older. But its possible she was just unlucky- and that her illnesses weren’t linked to her being a clone.

18 Issues Surrounding Cloning...
There are other risks and problems associated with cloning The cloning process often fails. It took hundreds of attempts to clone Dolly. Clones are often born with genetic defects. Cloned mammals immune systems are sometimes unhealthy- so they suffer from more disease.

19 Task You will work in pairs to do this.
You need to prepare a 30 second argument for either for or against cloning. This needs to be written in your group One person will do ‘for’ the other ‘against’.

20 Stem Cells

21 Quick Questions In terms of cells what do specialised and differentiation mean? Name one type of specialised cell and how it is adapted to do its job?

22 stem cells can differentiate into any type of cell

23 1. In terms of cells what do specialised and differentiation mean?
Specialised – Cells that have special characteristics to allow them to do their job. Differentiation – In cells, the process whereby new cells develop special characteristics to allow them to do their job.

24 2. Name one type of specialised cell
Red Blood Cell - No nucleus, large surface area. Sperm Cell - Pointy head, tail, enzymes in the cytoplasm. Root hair cell - Large surface area, thin membrane.

25 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Biology Growth and Development
What are stem cells? The first cells are stem cells. These are unspecialized cells capable of developing into many different types of cell. Stem cells found in embryos are called embryonic stem cells and develop into all the different types of cell in the body. Photo credit: Steve Gschmeissner / Science Photo Library Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of groups of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ESCs are pluripotent, that is they are able to differentiate into any cell type. The type of cell they mature into depends upon the biochemical signals received by the immature cells. This ability makes ESCs a potential source of cells to repair damaged tissue in diseases such as Parkinson’s and insulin-dependent diabetes. However, research using ESCs is controversial as it requires the destruction of an embryo. Magnification: x3000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. If stem cells continued to divide as they were, humans would end up as a large jelly-like blob!

26 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Biology Growth and Development
When the embryo contains about 500 cells, the cells stop being the same and they stop getting smaller with each division. They start to differentiate into different types of cell. stem cell stem cell tissue cell

27 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Biology Growth and Development
Tissue cells continue to divide and differentiate, each time becoming more and more specialized. stem cell tissue cells Some will become nerve cells, others will become blood cells, muscle cells, bone cells, etc. nerve cells cardiac muscle cells red blood cells

28 Stem Cells May be Able to cure Many diseases


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