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A I D International Development, LLC. Magnetism has been used for many centuries as a navigational essential tool. The planet earth is a huge magnet,

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Presentation on theme: "A I D International Development, LLC. Magnetism has been used for many centuries as a navigational essential tool. The planet earth is a huge magnet,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 A I D International Development, LLC.

3 Magnetism has been used for many centuries as a navigational essential tool. The planet earth is a huge magnet, which attracts ions, thereby creating the ionosphere. The ionosphere protects us from cosmic rays and is critical to life on this planet, as we know it. The following will only be portions of the study and development of magnetism. It should be stated that magnetism is the least researched science. MAGNETISM

4 A I D International Development, LLC. ELECTRICITY If it were not for magnetism, we would not have electricity. Magnets are used in both the generation and distribution of our electrical systems. Copper windings circulating around a magnetic core is the basis of a generator. Copper windings around a magnet is a transformer.

5 A I D International Development, LLC. All magnets have their own unique magnetic fields, which are represented by lines of force. Man-made magnets range from steel bars to complex compositions of RARE EARTH AND EXPENSIVE ELEMENTS. Each man-made magnet produces a different effect for various and numerous applications. MAGNETIC FIELDS

6 A I D International Development, LLC. The use of magnetic fields for improving the performance of combustion has been reported during the 1940s. The U.S. Air Force used a magnetic device on their Mustang aircraft, which proved to be very successful on poor quality fuels during World War II. Later, this same magnetic device was used by the Royal Air Force on the Spitfire and Hurricane aircraft, allowing greater range and much better performance from the same poor quality fuels. The magnetic devices of that era were extremely cumbersome to provide sufficient magnetic power. The materials and technology that are currently used have sufficient strengths to do the same function without being cumbersome. MAGNETIC FIELDS & COMBUSTION

7 A I D International Development, LLC. “atoms that possess an odd number of protons and/or neutrons will alter their normal chaotic nuclear spins and line those spins in relationship to a strong external magnetic field.” Felix Bloch of Stanford University and Edward Purcell of Harvard University were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for their work on “nuclear magnetic resonance” in the first serious research of magnetics. The phenomenon they discovered was that “atoms that possess an odd number of protons and/or neutrons will alter their normal chaotic nuclear spins and line those spins in relationship to a strong external magnetic field.” This discovery was used in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. NOBEL PRIZE

8 A I D International Development, LLC. Dr. Raymond Danadian found that cancerous tissue gives different echoes from non-cancerous tissue and this led to the invention of the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This is a magnetic device, which aligns the body’s hydrogen ions and ignores bone tissue under a very specific, powerful magnetic field. This discovery has made a significant difference in the advancement of medical diagnostics. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

9 A I D International Development, LLC. Because of the affinities and forces of organic compounds (molecules), they will “clump,” and using a strong magnet in a specific array with correct focal points will greatly reduce the clumping and enhance the fuel’s ability to mix with oxygen, resulting in a more complete combustion. covalent dipoles polar molecules In hydrocarbons, the energy we use as fuels is released when the covalent bonds are broken, which releases energy (explosion and heat). Molecules called dipoles have negative and positive ends, which arise when brought near an electric charge or magnet. Other molecules called polar molecules have permanent negative and positive ends. HYDROCARBON “CLUMPING”

10 A I D International Development, LLC. covalent dipoles polar molecules In hydrocarbons, the energy we use as fuels is released when the covalent bonds are broken, which releases energy (explosion and heat). Molecules called dipoles have negative and positive ends, which arise when brought near an electric charge or magnet. Other molecules called polar molecules have permanent negative and positive ends. HYDROCARBON “CLUMPING”

11 A I D International Development, LLC. dipoles van der Waalsforces The rapid oscillations of electrons about atomic nuclei create momentary alternating dipoles, which will cause weak attractions between non-bonded atoms when brought close to each other, causing a “clumping” of the molecules. These forces are called van der Waals forces and operate only within short ranges. HYDROCARBON “CLUMPING”

12 A I D International Development, LLC. “clumping,” more complete combustion A strong magnetic force will affect these molecules by breaking this attraction and reduce the “clumping,” allowing a better mix of air in the case of burning or use for fuel in engines. This results in more complete combustion, which equates to more power, more torque, less carbon monoxide and less nitrous oxides. This certainly means less pollution and fewer emissions. The complete combustion of hydrocarbons will yield carbon dioxide and water, neither of which is harmful or toxic in an open environment. Both can be used by either plants or animals. HYDROCARBON “CLUMPING”

13 A I D International Development, LLC. “clumped” When one thinks of a liquid, one may not be thinking about the minuscule atoms and molecules composing that liquid. However, most people have experienced a lime deposit build up in pipes that can cause liquids to flow less efficiently, even clog a pipe. A poor example, for instance, could be sauces and gravies that are very liquid when hot, but gel together when cooled. Many liquid bottled products have “Shake Well” on the label. That is because the “clumped” molecules must have a force, in this example “shake well,” before using. FLUID CONCEPTS

14 A I D International Development, LLC. Hydrocarbons in fuel are no different. The magnetic field breaks the molecules’ attraction to each other and disperses the individual molecules from one another, just as heat does to the gravy and shaking does to other products, but does so on a much smaller molecular scale and with an invisible force, some of which has been named above. FLUID CONCEPTS

15 A I D International Development, LLC. Faraday’s law helps us understand induction acting on the orbital motions in atoms or ions whereby the electron is in a circular motion around the nucleus. If a magnetic field is introduced perpendicular to that circuit, there will be an electromotive force (EMF) acting on the electron. The EMF has the effect of changing the nature of the circulating motion of atomic orbits. As a result of this force field, the electron will be accelerated according to Newton’s Law. FARADAY’S LAW & NEWTON’S LAW

16 A I D International Development, LLC. With an accelerated electron spin the behavior is altered. Regardless of the radius of the electron’s orbit, its stability is reduced and thus the affinity for other stable electrons is increased, thus allowing a greater action with oxygen for a more complete combustion. FARADAY’S LAW & NEWTON’S LAW

17 A I D International Development, LLC. why should one wait to save money and needlessly pump excess pollutants Some petroleum companies claim that a magnetic field has no effect on an oil derived fuel, and yet, the same companies use magnetic fields on the overland artic pipes and pipelines to prevent the crude oil from gelling (clumping). The Alaskan pipeline uses magnetics to move crude oil through the pipeline. The field of magnetics is one of the oldest and least researched fields. While research will pick-up one day, why should one wait to save money and needlessly pump excess pollutants into our atmosphere? OVERLAND ARTIC PIPELINE

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