Objectives Understand the basic components of a Community of Inquiry (COI) Become aware of web based tools to create a COI Learn how to create an online COI
Outline Community of Inquiry (COI) background Virtual COI Design and Policy Considerations Virtual COI indicators Explore online tools to enable online COI
Communities of Inquiry FH Communities of Inquiry model is based on the work of Etienne Wenger and colleagues in “Cultivating Communities of Practice” (Wenger et al., 2002). “Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.” [Source: Downloaded 5 November 2008].http://www.ewenger.com/theory/ This definition is being applied to the concept of Communities of Inquiry for FH.
A Strategic Purpose “Cultivating COI in strategic areas is a practical way to manage knowledge as an asset,...” Wenger et al., COI are particularly beneficial to the organization when the complexity of knowledge requires greater specialization and collaboration.
Basic Model of COI A community of inquiry will have: A domain of knowledge Defines a set of evolving issues, i.e. research areas. A well defined domain legitimizes the community by affirming its purpose and value to members and other stakeholders. A community Fosters interactions and relationships based on mutual respect and trust. Encourages a willingness to share ideas, ask difficult questions, and listen carefully. Requires regular interaction in order for the community to thrive. A set of knowledge resources May be frameworks, ideas, tools, information, styles, language, stories and documents that members share.
Characteristics May or may not include people that work together; Voluntary membership; Any size; People meet on a collegial basis because they find value in the interactions and in learning together; May be homogenous or heterogeneous or may evolve into one or the other; No formal reporting structure to the organization, but may influence development; May be organized spontaneously or intentionally; Information, insights and advice is shared in order to solve problems; Products, such as tools, standards, generic designs, documents may or may not be developed; May develop unique perspectives on their topics; May develop a body of common knowledge, practices and approaches; Lifespan dependent on how long purpose and needs of members are being met.
Design Principles for a Community of Inquiry Design for evolution To meet needs of users as needs evolve. Open a dialogue between inside and outside perspectives Inviting non-FH members to participate. Invite different levels of participation Consider core, peripheral and outside members. Develop both public and private relationships Web space, is designed to facilitate one to one linkages between individuals and community. Focus on value Follow up with members to determine the value/benefit they have derived and how this may/has impacted their organization. Combine familiarity and excitement Encourage members to participate in public events that may be of interest to them- Showcase accomplishments
Crystallizing: Creating a Community of Inquiry Key Domain Issue: Define the scope of the domain so that it “elicits the heart-felt interests of members and aligns with important issues for the organization as a whole”. Purpose: Clarify primary intent and engage members. Key Community Issue: Recruit people who have the capacity to network on a topic Help them to imagine how increased networking and knowledge sharing could be valuable. Key Practice Issue: Identify common knowledge needs.
Outcomes: Tangible Value: An increase in employee job satisfaction and therefore retention. A body of knowledge through the accumulation of the experiences and tacit knowledge of experts. The development of useful documentation, tools and procedures. Develop ongoing practices that may meet the organization’s long term strategy.
Intangible Value: Build relationships among people. Increase a sense of belonging. Generate a spirit of inquiry. Infuse members with professional confidence and identity. Personal satisfaction Having a network of colleagues who understand each other’s perspectives. Belonging to an interesting group of people. Outcomes:
COI Life Cycle (Wenger et al., 2002)
COI Life Cycle Activities Inquire Identify audience, purpose, goals, vision Design Define activities, technologies, processes, roles Prototype Pilot test with stakeholders Launch Bring COI to larger community Grow Foster participation and contributions, form subgroups Sustain Develop infrastructure, create new member roles
Virtual COI Network of individuals who share an interest Online communication
Virtual COI - Benefits Enhanced learning environment Synergies created Capabilities extended to higher level Knowledge sharing & learning Gaining insights from each other Deepening of knowledge, innovation & expertise Cyclical, fluid knowledge development Feeling of connection Ongoing interactions Assimilation into sociocultural practices Neo-apprenticeship style of learning Identity development and formation Practice-based usage eLearning Papers Nº 5 September 2007 ISSN
Virtual COI – Barriers Perpetuation vs. change and diversity Disciplinary differences Culture of independence Tacit knowledge Transactive knowledge Specialist language Collegiality, strong physical community Shifting membership Creating and maintaining information flow No F2F to break the ice Read-only participants (lurkers) Hidden identities, adopted personas Lack of trust – personal and institutional Selectivity in information communication technology use No body language, misinterpretations Task-based usage eLearning Papers Nº 5 September 2007 ISSN
Virtual COI – Success Factors Good use of internet standard technologies Technological provision ICT skills Institutional acceptance of ICTs as communication media Good communications Trust Common values Shared understanding Prior knowledge of membership Sense of belonging Cultural awareness Sense of purpose Sensitivity in monitoring, regulating, facilitating Netiquette User-friendly language Time to build up the COI Regular interaction Good coordination to achieve regular but varied communication Resources to bolster and build up the community eLearning Papers Nº 5 September 2007 ISSN
Online COI Design Considerations Private or open status Membership – who to invite, who can join, how? Open discussion forum – to share ideas publicly Messaging – to share ideas privately Blogs – to explore ideas Opportunity for members to form sub-groups Share documents Support RSS feeds Post pictures Post documents Post video Links Notification of updates
FH Guidelines for Participating in On Line Communities and Web- Based Networking Public displays of your professional identities should be aligned with the code of ethics for your field of work Patient photos must not be posted under any circumstances No confidential information of any kind may be shared Permission should be granted before posting photos of colleagues Corporate photos, logos and marketing materials relating to Fraser Health, acute sites and community facilities, and Foundations must not be posted Facebook groups, for example, about Fraser Health or a Fraser Health facility such as a hospital (or similar groups on similar sites), should be closed groups, whereby access to join must be granted by the group administrator. Free public access to these groups should not be available.
COI Indicators Indicators Worksheet - Valuable for planning and evaluation of COI Membership Joint Enterprise Diversity Participatory Framework Process/Activities Mutuality/Sense of Community Sharing and Exchanging Knowledge Reflection Reproduction Cycle/Continuity Outputs/Outcomes Action Orientation Construction of New Knowledge Dissemination of New Knowledge
Conversations on the Social Web
Online Formats Amenable to COI: A Guided Tour ListServ / distribution list Blog Wiki SharePoint Research Networks Virtual Research Environments
ListServ / LISTSERV is the first electronic mailing list software application. Prior to LISTSERV, lists were managed manually. LISTSERV was freeware from 1986 through 1993 and is now a commercial product A free version limited to 10 lists of up to 500 subscribers each can be downloaded from the L-soft web site CanMedLib
Web Log A web log (blog) is a website Maintained by an individual Dated entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics, files, web links Used to enhance the communication and culture within a research community Users may post comments User network may be displayed ault.htm ault.htm Finding medical blogs:
Wiki A web page or collection of pages designed to enable anyone to contribute or modify the content Wikis are often used to create collaborative websites. A wiki allows all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site. Promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages through links. Involves the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site.
SharePoint A tool that enables FH teams to have places where information sharing and collaboration across our organization can occur. Create libraries for shared documents, department forms, and templates Manage shared lists for links, announcements, contacts, events, tasks, issues. Create custom lists to meet specific requirements. Build web pages, alerts, and discussion boards for your Team. n+Management/Services/Service+Requests/Sharepoint+Team+Site s/default.htm n+Management/Services/Service+Requests/Sharepoint+Team+Site s/default.htm
Research Networks BC Environmental and Occupational Health Network BC Network for Aging Research Contact, Help, Advice and Information Networks (CHAIN) dex.htm dex.htm
Virtual Research Environments VREs are online frameworks that support research initiatives and COI. VRE Article UPEI VRI
Build Your Own Google Groups: Yahoo Groups:
Demonstration of the M&M Community of Inquiry -of-inquiry-in-health-care -of-inquiry-in-health-care
Activity Plan and build your own Google Group COI Consider the backgrounds of your partners when designing the COI so that all fields/areas of expertise are represented Use the COI indicators worksheet to plan Use the COI indicators worksheet to identify desired components that are not supported by Google Groups