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1 Emergency Services Search Coverage Mission Pilot CAPR 50-15 Attachment 10 Paragraph d Richard Shulak Wasatch Sqdn. RMR-UT-008 February 2000.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Emergency Services Search Coverage Mission Pilot CAPR 50-15 Attachment 10 Paragraph d Richard Shulak Wasatch Sqdn. RMR-UT-008 February 2000."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Emergency Services Search Coverage Mission Pilot CAPR Attachment 10 Paragraph d Richard Shulak Wasatch Sqdn. RMR-UT-008 February 2000

2 2 Vision Characteristics Central vision is about 10 degrees If search object falls in this area, you will probably recognize it Peripheral vision is NOT effective Best vision is straight ahead Scanning requires head movement Vision to the side is blocked by the nose

3 3 Scanning Range & Search Visibility Scanning range Distance from aircraft ground track to maximum range where scanner has a good chance of sighting the object Search visibility Range at which an automobile can be seen and recognized Scanning range can be shorter than search visibility Aircraft debris can be smaller than an automobile

4 4 Factors Affecting Scanning Range Atmospheric conditions Rain, pollen, dust, smoke, haze, inversions Position of the sun Best time is when sun is 30 degrees or more above horizon Clouds and shadows Terrain and ground cover Mountains, ground cover, trees (evergreen and leaf bearing)

5 5 Factors Affecting Scanning Range Surface conditions Snow Light aircraft in snow that don’t burn are very hard to locate Cleanliness of window areas Dirty windows can reduce visibility by as much as 50% Condition of scanner Colds and sinus problems Fatigue Motion sickness

6 6 Scanning Techniques Central vision is a 10 degree diameter circle A fist at arms length covers about 10 degrees Scan must STOP at each 10 degree point to be effective Pilots use this technique to scan for other aircraft Duration of stop should be about 1/3 second Practice your scan! Always use it when flying

7 7 Scanning Patterns A set pattern of scan lines must be used Diagonal pattern Used when sitting in the rear seat of a small aircraft Scanning line is followed left to right If in the right seat, start close to the airplane and scan to the end of the scanning range If in the left seat, start at the end of the scanning range and end under or close to the aircraft ground track All scan lines are parallel

8 8 Diagonal Scanning Patterns

9 9 Scanning Patterns Vertical pattern Same as diagonal, except scans start directly under the aircraft

10 10 Coverage of Horizontal and Vertical Scans

11 11 Sighting Characteristics Visual clues Light colored or shiny objects Smoke and fire Charred areas Broken tree branches Local foliage discoloration Fresh bare earth Breaks in cultivated fields Water and snow discontinuities Tracks and signals Birds and animals (crows, buzzards)

12 12 Aircraft Wreckage Patterns Hole-in-the ground Nose first at high speed Deep hole Dirt and debris around small area If in wooded area, very hard to locate Corkscrew or auger Uncontrollable spin Small area Still looks like an airplane Considerable damage to trees

13 13 Aircraft Wreckage Patterns Creaming or smear Impact at high rate of speed Wreckage in a long and narrow path Near point of impact may be the battered and recognizable tail and wings Four winds Mid air collision or explosion Parts scattered over large area Hedge trimming Ricochet off crest of hill or ridge Impact could be some distance beyond first impact Tops of tree may be trimmed

14 14 Signaling Techniques of Survivors Fire Three fires in a triangle Smoke or flares Signal mirrors Panels on the ground Wreckage, tarps Messages Rocks, tree branches, driftwood Nighttime signals Flashlight, fire

15 15 More Definitions Meteorological visibility The maximum range at which large objects, such as a mountain, can be seen Search visibility Distance at which an object the size of an automobile can be seen and recognized Scanning range The lateral distance from a scanner’s aircraft to an imaginary line parallel to the search aircraft's ground track within which the scanner has a good chance of spotting the search objective

16 16 More Definitions Ground track Imaginary line of the ground over which the aircraft flies Search track Area between ground track and scanning range Track spacing Distance between adjacent ground tracks

17 17 More Definitions Possibility area Largest geographic area in which the aircraft might be found Usually determined from the last known position (LKP) Probability area Geographic area within the possibility area in which the aircraft is most likely to be found Determined by ELT signals, civilian reports, radar plots, etc.

18 18 Probability of Detection SEARCH VISIBILITY

19 19 Cumulative Probability of Detection


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