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Peripheral Nerve Injuries. AXILLARY NERVE A large nerve arising from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus Divided: Posterior branch: Innervates Teres.

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Presentation on theme: "Peripheral Nerve Injuries. AXILLARY NERVE A large nerve arising from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus Divided: Posterior branch: Innervates Teres."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peripheral Nerve Injuries

2 AXILLARY NERVE A large nerve arising from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus Divided: Posterior branch: Innervates Teres minor, part of the Deltoideus & Anterior branch. Innervates Skin overlying the Deltoideus; the Deltoideus. (Some fibers of the nerve also supply the capsule of the shoulder joint)

3 Aetiology  Blunt trauma or excessive stress on the nerve over a long period of time  other body structures putting pressure on the axillary nerve, or trapping it against another body part  a penetrating injury, such as a knife or gunshot wound  exceeding a normal range of motion joint.  high-impact upper body activities (athletes)  perform repetitive tasks using your shoulder  have a certain type of existing bone fracture  improperly use supportive equipment such as crutches

4  most common peripheral nerve injury to affect the shoulder.  It most often is seen after glenohumeral joint dislocation, proximal humerus fracture, or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle.  Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in the quadrilateral space syndrome,  true pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear.  vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder and iatrogenic injury (Referring to injuries caused by a doctor.). Pathophysiology

5 most common peripheral nerve injury to affect the shoulder. It most often is seen after glenohumeral joint dislocation, proximal humerus fracture, or a direct blow to the deltoid muscle. Compression neuropathy has been reported to occur in the quadrilateral space syndrome, although the true pathophysiology of this disorder remains unclear. The axillary nerve is vulnerable during any operative procedure involving the inferior aspect of the shoulder and iatrogenic injury remains a serious complication of shoulder surgery. During the acute phase of injury, the shoulder should be rested, and when clinically indicated, a patient should undergo an extensive rehabilitation program emphasizing range of motion and strengthening of the shoulder girdle muscles. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 6 months after injury, surgical exploration may be indicated, especially if the mechanism of injury is consistent with nerve rupture. Patients who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery although return of function of the involved shoulder typically is good to excellent, depending on associated ligamentous or bony injury. The quadrangular space (or quadrila teralspace or Foramen Humerotricipitale) is an axillary space in the arm.quadrangularquadrila teralaxillary space This is a clinically important anatomic space in the arm. The quadrangular space (or quadrila teralspace or Foramen Humerotricipitale) is an axillary space in the arm.quadrangularquadrila teralaxillary space This is a clinically important anatomic space in the arm.

6 Nerve Injury ◦Nerve regeneration takes place at a rate of ~1mm/day ◦Seddon's Classification of Nerve Injury ◦Neuropraxia The axon and all 3 connective tissue layers (endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium) remain intact with a decrease in conduction ◦Axonotmesis Axonal damage is present with preservation of the endoneurium ◦Neurotmesis Axonal damage is present Pathophysiology

7  Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common occurring dislocation at the shoulder.  Men and women 3:1 9-65% involve axillary nerve injury  Traction and compression to the axillary nerve  Blunt trauma Pathophysiology

8 Clinical Presentation # Variable and can go undetected, as the concomitant dislocation or fracture may mask the symptoms. Subjective Examination ◦Generalized mild, dull, and achy pain to the deep or lateral shoulder, with occasional radiation to the proximal arm ◦Numbness and tingling of the lateral arm and/or posterior aspect of the shoulder ◦In some cases, persisting 2-4 weeks post-injury ◦Feeling of instability

9 ◦Weakness, especially with flexion, abduction, and external rotation ◦Fatigue, especially with overhead activities, heavy lifting, and/or throwing ◦May/or may not reveal a history of trauma to the shoulder region ◦Easing Factors include: rest, ice, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory medications Clinical Presentation

10 “Unhappy Triad”  Quadrilateral Space Syndrome (QSS) Posterior Cord of the Brachial Plexus Injury  C5-6 Cervical Radiculopathy  Parsonage-Turner Syndrome (PTS) Clinical Presentation "Unhappy Triad"  The “Unhappy Triad” consists of a shoulder dislocation that results in both a rotator cuff tear and axillary nerve injury.  Occurs in 9-18% of anterior shoulder dislocations  Risk of an “unhappy triad” with anterior shoulder dislocation increases after the age of 40. Differential Diagnosis

11 Quadrilateral space syndrome(QSS) QSS is an “uncommon condition that involves the compression of the posterior humeral circumflex artery and the axillary nerve within the quadrilateral space,” secondary to an acute trauma or from overuse, especially with overhead sports like throwing and swimming. Symptoms are typically present with the arm in an overhead position, especially in late cocking or the early acceleration phases of throwing Parsonage-Turner Syndrome(PTS) PTS is an uncommon, idiopathic condition. Characterized by an acute onset of intense pain, without a mechanism of injury, that subsides within days-weeks, leaving behind residual weakness/paralysis in upper extremity muscles. Clinical Presentation

12 Significant Atrophy in left deltoid

13 Symptoms Numbness over part of the outer shoulderNumbness Shoulder weakness, especially when lifting the arm up and away from the bodyweakness May experience weakness in the shoulders and have problems with normal physical activities, such as lifting your arms above your head. Difficulty lifting objects can also be a sign of AND. Over time, your shoulder muscles may become smaller because they cannot be worked out regularly.

14 Examination Physical examination should begin with a screening consisting of an evaluation of the head and neck which shouldn’t reveal any abnormalities. If the patient presents with a recent shoulder dislocation, presence of a radial pulse and sensation and movement of the digits should also be assessed as part of the initial screening Medical Management

15  Surgery  Indications for surgery  Suspicion of osteophyte formation or compression in the quadrilateral space.  No axillary nerve recovery observed by 3 to 4 months following injury.  No improvements seen after 3 to 6 months of conservative treatment.  No EMG/NCV evidence of recovery by 3 to 6 months after injury.  Surgical Procedures  Neurolysis Neurolysis  Neurorrhaphy Neurorrhaphy  Nerve grafting Nerve grafting Nonsurgical Reduction  Reduction eliminates the need for surgical intervention, and is followed by immobilization and physical therapy management.  Immobilization for young adult males 4-6 weeks  Immobilization for older patients 7-10 days  Precaution should be taken during manipulative reduction of a dislocation,  NSAIDS, rest, ice

16 Physical Therapy Management (current best evidence) Current research encompassing treatment and intervention of axillary nerve injuries following shoulder dislocation is limited. Non-Surgical Physical Therapy Treatment 0-2 weeks Shoulder immobilization via sling after reduction ◦There is insufficient evidence to support whether physical therapy should be initiated during or after immobilization. Isometric Strengthening; Dosing: 10 seconds X 6 repetitions X 2 day within limits of pain ◦Shoulder(Flex, Ext, Abd, Add, IR) Joint Mobility ◦Active Range of Motion(AROM); Dosing 10 repetitions X 2 day ◦Elbow(Flex, Ext,Pronation, Supination) ◦Wrist (Flex, Ext, Radial/Ulnar deviation) ◦Hand (Opening/Closing Fist)

17 2-4 week Joint Mobility PROM/AAROM); Dosing 10 repetitions X 2 dayShoulder (Flex, IR, Add) Avoid end-range ER/Abd until later stages of treatment! AROM; Dosing 10 repetitions X 2 day Elbow(Flex, Ext,Pronation, Supination) Wrist (Flex, Ext, Radial/Ulnar deviation) Hand (Opening/Closing Fist) Pendulum Exercises 3 sets x 30 seconds Postural/Periscapular Muscular Strengthening/Neuromuscular Re-education Target Muscles Deltoid Serratus Anterior Rhomboid Major/Minor Upper/Middle/Lower Trapezium PRECAUTION: against shoulder abduction & flexion beyond 90 degrees, and ER beyond neutral in the first 3 weeks Older individuals have lower rates of reoccurrence of shoulder dislocation and an increase in incidence of joint stiffness.

18 4-6 weeks D/C sling Strengthening Program light resistive exercises Proprioceptive Techniques PNF diagonals Closed Chained Activities Wall push-ups -->Table-->Floor Weight Shifts 6 weeks-Discharge Continue ROM, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic stabilization/strengthening exercises, Proprioception, and joint mobility, while maintaining optimal conditions for tissue healing Begin to initiate sport/job specific activities, progressing to full return as patient’s functional status allows Medical Management

19 Conclusion During the acute phase of injury, the shoulder should be rested, and when clinically indicated, a patient should undergo an extensive rehabilitation program emphasizing range of motion and strengthening of the shoulder girdle muscles. If no axillary nerve recovery is observed by 3 to 6 months after injury, surgical exploration may be indicated, especially if the mechanism of injury is consistent with nerve rupture. Patients who sustain injury to the axillary nerve have a variable prognosis for nerve recovery although return of function of the involved shoulder typically is good to excellent, depending on associated ligamentous or bony injury.

20 References https://www.google.gy/search?q=axillary+nerve+definition&rlz=1C1CHFX_enGY629GY629&espv=2&biw=1242&bih=606&site=we bhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=VrwLVYO_GYmhyQT29IH4Aw&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&dpr=1.1#imgdii=_&imgrc=tSup G6p00N1nmM%253A%3B1nKZj2k2ocSGDM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.usra.ca%252Fimages%252Fbp2.jpg%3Bhttp%253A %252F%252Fwhat-is-this.net%252Ffr%252Fdefinition%252Faxillary%3B420%3B310https://www.google.gy/search?q=axillary+nerve+definition&rlz=1C1CHFX_enGY629GY629&espv=2&biw=1242&bih=606&site=we bhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=VrwLVYO_GYmhyQT29IH4Aw&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&dpr=1.1#imgdii=_&imgrc=tSup G6p00N1nmM%253A%3B1nKZj2k2ocSGDM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.usra.ca%252Fimages%252Fbp2.jpg%3Bhttp%253A %252F%252Fwhat-is-this.net%252Ffr%252Fdefinition%252Faxillary%3B420%3B310 https://www.google.gy/search?q=axillary+nerve+definition&rlz=1C1CHFX_enGY629GY629&espv=2&biw=1242&bih=606&site=we bhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=VrwLVYO_GYmhyQT29IH4Aw&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&dpr=1.1#imgdii=_&imgrc=2rlR RBWo8cRukM%253A%3BiaN2Ymik8NlmvM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Flegacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu%252Fgcaplan%252Fanat%25 2Fnotes%252FImage544.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Flegacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu%252Fgcaplan%252Fanat%252Fnotes%252Fa pi%252520notes%252520m%252520%252520peripheral%252520nerves.htm%3B640%3B480https://www.google.gy/search?q=axillary+nerve+definition&rlz=1C1CHFX_enGY629GY629&espv=2&biw=1242&bih=606&site=we bhp&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=VrwLVYO_GYmhyQT29IH4Aw&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&dpr=1.1#imgdii=_&imgrc=2rlR RBWo8cRukM%253A%3BiaN2Ymik8NlmvM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Flegacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu%252Fgcaplan%252Fanat%25 2Fnotes%252FImage544.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Flegacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu%252Fgcaplan%252Fanat%252Fnotes%252Fa pi%252520notes%252520m%252520%252520peripheral%252520nerves.htm%3B640%3B


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