2The Heart Muscular pump, about the size of a clenched fist Made up of a special muscle called MyocardiumThis can contract continuously without getting tiredMain purpose is to drive blood through the arteriesThis delivers blood to the working muscles and other tissues.
3Task…Find a picture of a blank heart (that is suitable to annotate) and upload it to a blank document.Then do some light background research on the different labels of the heart including…Structure of the cardiovascular system- heart:AtriaVentriclesBicuspid valve and tricuspid valveAortic valve and pulmonary valveAorta and vena cava – superior and inferiorPulmonary vein and pulmonary artery
4The Heart continuedThe Heart sits in a twin layered sac known as the PericardiumFilled with pericardial fluidPrevents friction as your heart beats.
5The Heart continued Epicardium (Outer) The heart wall has 3 layersEpicardium (Outer)Myocardium (middle layer and most of the heart wall)Endocardium (The inner layer)
6Ventricles Atria/ Atrium Lower chambers of the heart Upper chambers of the heartReceive blood.Right Atrium – receives deoxygenated blood from the body (Via the Vena Cava)Left Atrium – receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (Via the pulmonary Vein)VentriclesLower chambers of the heartThey have thicker walls and are strongerJob is to pump the bloodRight Ventricle pumps blood to the lungs (pulmonary circulation)Left ventricle pumps blood to the body (systemic circulation)
7Valves Tricuspid Valve Bicuspid Valve Aortic Valve Pulmonary Valve Also known as the mitral valveAortic ValvePulmonary ValveAll valves make sure that the blood flows in one direction, and there is no back flowChordae TendineaeCord like tendons that connect to the tricuspid and bicuspid valvesEnsure the valves stay the right way round and keep the blood flowing in the same direction.
8Aorta and Vena Cava The largest vein is the Vena Cava Carries blood directly into the heart from the bodyThe largest Artery is the AortaCarries oxygenated blood directly out of the heart to the body tissuesSuperior vena cavabrings blood from the upper bodyInferior Vena CavaBrings blood from the lower body.
9Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary ArteryCarries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.It is the only artery that carries deoxygenated bloodPulmonary VeinCarries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heartIt is the only vein that carries oxygenated blood.
10The Heart = Double pump Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation To describe the flow of blood around the heart and the body, you will need to mention that the heart is made up of two pumpsPulmonary circulationPumps blood to and from the lungsSystemic circulationPumps blood around the body
11Passage of blood flowBlood flows into and out of the heart and around the body in one direction.The heart is split into two distinct pumps by the Septum.This makes sure that the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood don’t mix.When describing the passage of blood flow around the heart, it is best to use a diagram and start on the right side of the heart.
12The right side of the heart Blood enters the heart (when it is relaxed) via the vena cavae,It goes into the right atriumThe right atrium contracts and the blood goes through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricleThe right ventricle contracts and the blood is pushed out of the heart through the semi lunar or pulmonary valve and into the pulmonary arteryThe pulmonary artery carries the blood to the lungsThe heart relaxes and the valves close to stop back flow of the bloodIn the lungs, the blood becomes oxygenated, and begins it’s journey back to the heart.
13The Left side of the heart The heart is relaxed, and this allows blood to enter the left side of the heart from the pulmonary veinIt enters the left atriumThe left atrium contracts and pushes blood through the bicuspid valve and into the left ventricleThe left ventricle has a very strong muscular wall and contracts very strongly. This closes the bicuspid valve to prevent backflow, and pushes the blood through the aortic valve and into the aorta. This is the largest artery and splits taking the blood to different areas of the bodyThe heart contracts and the aortic valve closes, preventing back flow of the blood.
14Terminology Heart rate (H.R.) Stroke Volume (S.V.) Cardiac Output The amount of times the heart beats in a minute.Usually measured in beats per minute (b.p.m.)Stroke Volume (S.V.)The amount of blood leaving the left ventricle in one beat.Normally measure in mililitresCardiac OutputThe amount of blood leaving the heart in one minuteNormally measured in litres/minuteCardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart Rate
16The Blood Vessels Introduction We have a variety of different vessels within the cardiovascular system to deliver and remove nutrients and waste products.Blood in the arteries is bright red, as it is carrying oxygen. It drops off the oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide as it moves through the capillaries. By the time it reaches the veins and venules it is a much darker blue/red colour.
175 main blood vessels Carry blood away from the heart Where gas exchange takes placeCarry blood back to the heartArteriesArteriolesCapillariesVenulesVeins
18Arteries & ArteriolesArteries are large blood vessels, that carry blood away from the heart.Thick Elastic muscular wallsArtery walls contain elastic cartilage and smooth muscle, This allows the arteries walls to contract and relax to send blood to all parts of the bodyThis process is known as perstalsis, and is how smooth muscle contractsCarry Oxygenated bloodApart from the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs to get Oxygen
19Arteries & Arterioles Aorta Main artery leaving the heart Small round lumenOperate under high pressureArteries don’t contain valves, as the blood is moving quickly under high pressure, so there is no chance of backflow.AortaMain artery leaving the heartIt soon splits into smaller vessels – ArteriolesArterioles deliver the blood to the capillaries
20Capillaries Smallest blood vessels Found in all cells of the body Just one cell thickVery thin wallsAllows oxygen and other nutrients to diffuse through the cell walls.Blood flows very slowly through the capillaries so that this can happenEffectively in the capillaries, the blood unloads the Oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide and lactic acid (the waste products of metabolism)
21Veins & VenulesThe blood feeds from the capillaries back to the venules and then the veins.Larger oval lumenMeans blood flows at lower speed and pressure.Thinner and less muscular than arteriesHave some smooth muscleContracts to help sent the blood back to the heart
22Veins & Venules Deoxygenated blood Carry blood back to the heartGenerally working against gravityParticularly blood that is going back to the heart from the legs or arms, as it is below the heart.ValvesTo prevent the blood from flowing back once the smooth muscle relaxes.Prevents pooling, particularly in the legsDeoxygenated bloodApart from pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
24Task…You are going to outline the function and characteristics of each of the 5 types of Blood Vessels that serve the circulatory system…Including:Physical characteristics that classify each blood vessel.What their function is within the CIRCULATORY system?What do they transport?Followed by a description/ explanation of the composition of BLOOD
25BloodIt is the medium in which all the cells are carried to transport nutrients and Oxygen (O2) to the cells of the body.It carries:- Oxygen, Glucose, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Hormones, Enzymes, Platelets, Carbon Dioxide and Electrolytes.Plasma: straw coloured liquid that all solids are carried within.Made up of 4 components:Red blood cellsWhite blood cellsPlateletsPlasma
26Red Blood CellsRed blood cells make up 99% of the population of the blood cells in the bodyThey are RED in colour due to the presence of a protein called HAEMOGLOBIN and absolutely loves Oxygen (massiveattraction!)Making RED blood cells soul purpose to transport OXYGEN!
27White Blood CellsThey are colourless and transparent and fewer in number to red blood cells(1:700)The role of White blood cells is to fight infection as they are part of the immune system.They destroy bacteria and other dangerous organisms… thus fighting potentialinfection.
28Platelets They act by stopping blood loss through clotting They become sticky when in contact with air to form the initial stage of repair to the damaged tissue…They act by stopping blood loss through clottingYet platelets need a substance called x-Factor 8 to enable them to become active and do their job/clot.
29Describe the Structure and Function of the cardiovascular system Examine the cardiovascular system and explain how it works and how each part of the system is designed to meet its functionStructure of the cardiovascular system (which you have to find pictures/ label and describe):Heart:Atria, Ventricles, Bicuspid valve, Tricuspid valve, Aortic valve, Pulmonary valve, Aorta, Vena cava – (superior and inferior), Pulmonary vein, Pulmonary arteryBlood vessels:Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins, VenuolesFunction of the cardiovascular system:Delivery of oxygen and nutrientsRemoval of waste productsThermoregulation (vasodilation and vasoconstriction of vessels);Function of blood (oxygen transport,clotting, fighting infection)