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Lecture 5: Triangulations & simplicial complexes (and cell complexes). in a series of preparatory lectures for the Fall 2013 online course MATH:7450 (22M:305) Topics in Topology: Scientific and Engineering Applications of Algebraic Topology Target Audience: Anyone interested in topological data analysis including graduate students, faculty, industrial researchers in bioinformatics, biology, business, computer science, cosmology, engineering, imaging, mathematics, neurology, physics, statistics, etc. Isabel K. Darcy Mathematics Department/Applied Mathematical & Computational Sciences University of Iowa http://www.math.uiowa.edu/~idarcy/AppliedTopology.html

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v2v2 e2e2 e1e1 e3e3 v1v1 v3v3 2-simplex = triangle = {v 1, v 2, v 3 } Note that the boundary of this triangle is the cycle e 1 + e 2 + e 3 = {v 1, v 2 } + {v 2, v 3 } + {v 1, v 3 } 1-simplex = edge = {v 1, v 2 } Note that the boundary of this edge is v 2 + v 1 e v1v1 v2v2 0-simplex = vertex = v Building blocks for a simplicial complex

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3-simplex = {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = tetrahedron boundary of {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = {v 1, v 2, v 3 } + {v 1, v 2, v 4 } + {v 1, v 3, v 4 } + {v 2, v 3, v 4 } n-simplex = {v 1, v 2, …, v n+1 } v4v4 v3v3 v1v1 v2v2 Building blocks for a simplicial complex

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3-simplex = {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = tetrahedron boundary of {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = {v 1, v 2, v 3 } + {v 1, v 2, v 4 } + {v 1, v 3, v 4 } + {v 2, v 3, v 4 } n-simplex = {v 1, v 2, …, v n+1 } v4v4 v3v3 v1v1 v2v2 Building blocks for a simplicial complex v4v4 v3v3 v1v1 v2v2 Fill in

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Creating a simplicial complex 0.) Start by adding 0-dimensional vertices (0-simplices)

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Creating a simplicial complex 1.) Next add 1-dimensional edges (1-simplices). Note: These edges must connect two vertices. I.e., the boundary of an edge is two vertices

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Creating a simplicial complex 1.) Next add 1-dimensional edges (1-simplices). Note: These edges must connect two vertices. I.e., the boundary of an edge is two vertices

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Creating a simplicial complex 1.) Next add 1-dimensional edges (1-simplices). Note: These edges must connect two vertices. I.e., the boundary of an edge is two vertices

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Creating a simplicial complex 2.) Add 2-dimensional triangles (2-simplices). Boundary of a triangle = a cycle consisting of 3 edges.

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Creating a simplicial complex 2.) Add 2-dimensional triangles (2-simplices). Boundary of a triangle = a cycle consisting of 3 edges.

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Creating a simplicial complex 3.) Add 3-dimensional tetrahedrons (3-simplices). Boundary of a 3-simplex = a cycle consisting of its four 2-dimensional faces.

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Creating a simplicial complex 3.) Add 3-dimensional tetrahedrons (3-simplices). Boundary of a 3-simplex = a cycle consisting of its four 2-dimensional faces.

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4.) Add 4-dimensional 4-simplices, {v 1, v 2, …, v 5 }. Boundary of a 4-simplex = a cycle consisting of 3-simplices. = {v 2, v 3, v 4, v 5 } + {v 1, v 3, v 4, v 5 } + {v 1, v 2, v 4, v 5 } + {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 5 } + {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 }

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Creating a simplicial complex n.) Add n-dimensional n-simplices, {v 1, v 2, …, v n+1 }. Boundary of a n-simplex = a cycle consisting of (n-1)-simplices.

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circle = { x in R 2 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the circle.

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circle = { x in R 2 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the circle.

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circle = { x in R 2 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the circle.

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circle = { x in R 2 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the circle.

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circle = { x in R 2 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the circle.

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disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } Example: Triangulating the disk.

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disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } Example: Triangulating the disk.

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disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } Example: Triangulating the disk.

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disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } Example: Triangulating the disk.

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disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } = Example: Triangulating the disk.

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere.

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere.

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere.

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere.

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Example: Triangulating the circle. disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } =

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Example: Triangulating the circle. disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 }

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Example: Triangulating the circle. disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } Fist image from http://openclipart.org/detail/1000/a-raised-fist-by-liftarn

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere.

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sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Example: Triangulating the sphere. =

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Creating a cell complex Building block: n-cells = { x in R n : || x || ≤ 1 } Examples: 0-cell = { x in R 0 : ||x || < 1 } 1-cell =open interval ={ x in R : ||x || < 1 } ( ) 3-cell = open ball = { x in R 3 : ||x || < 1 } 2-cell = open disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || < 1 }

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v2v2 e2e2 e1e1 e3e3 v1v1 v3v3 2-simplex = triangle = {v 1, v 2, v 3 } Note that the boundary of this triangle is the cycle e 1 + e 2 + e 3 = {v 1, v 2 } + {v 2, v 3 } + {v 1, v 3 } 1-simplex = edge = {v 1, v 2 } Note that the boundary of this edge is v 2 + v 1 e v1v1 v2v2 0-simplex = vertex = v Building blocks for a simplicial complex

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3-simplex = {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = tetrahedron boundary of {v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 } = {v 1, v 2, v 3 } + {v 1, v 2, v 4 } + {v 1, v 3, v 4 } + {v 2, v 3, v 4 } n-simplex = {v 1, v 2, …, v n+1 } v4v4 v3v3 v1v1 v2v2 v4v4 v3v3 v1v1 v2v2 Fill in Building blocks for a simplicial complex

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Creating a cell complex Building block: n-cells = { x in R n : || x || ≤ 1 } 2-cell = open disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || < 1 } 3-cell = open ball = { x in R 3 : ||x || < 1 } Examples: 0-cell = { x in R 0 : ||x || < 1 } 1-cell =open interval ={ x in R : ||x || < 1 } ( )

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Creating a cell complex Building block: n-cells = { x in R n : || x || ≤ 1 } 2-cell = open disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || < 1 } Examples: 0-cell = { x in R 0 : ||x || < 1 } 1-cell =open interval ={ x in R : ||x || < 1 } ( ) 3-cell = open ball = { x in R 3 : ||x || < 1 }

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex ( ) U

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex [ ] U

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex [ ] U =

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex [ ] U = U

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex Cell complex [ ] U = U =

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Euler characteristic (simple form): = number of vertices – number of edges + number of faces Or in short-hand, = |V| - |E| + |F| where V = set of vertices E = set of edges F = set of 2-dimensional faces & the notation |X| = the number of elements in the set X.

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Example: disk = { x in R 2 : ||x || ≤ 1 } ( ) U = = Simplicial complex 3 vertices, 3 edges, 1 triangle Cell complex 1 vertex, 1 edge, 1 disk. [ ] U = U =

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Euler characteristic: Given a simplicial complex C, let C n = the set of n-dimensional simplices in C, and let |C n | denote the number of elements in C n. Then = |C 0 | - |C 1 | + |C 2 | - |C 3 | + … = Σ (-1) n |C n |

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Euler characteristic: Given a cell complex C, let C n = the set of n-dimensional cells in C, and let |C n | denote the number of elements in C n. Then = |C 0 | - |C 1 | + |C 2 | - |C 3 | + … = Σ (-1) n |C n |

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } Simplicial complex 4 vertices, 6 edges, 4 triangles Cell Complex 1 vertex, 1 disk = U =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Simplicial complex Cell complex =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Simplicial complex Cell complex U =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Simplicial complex Cell complex U = =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Simplicial complex Cell complex U = = Fist image from http://openclipart.org/detail/1000/a-raised-fist-by-liftarn

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Cell complex U = =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Cell complex U = =

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Example: sphere = { x in R 3 : ||x || = 1 } U = Simplicial complex Cell complex Cell complex U = =

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