Introduction Education institutions ⇨ social cohesion and respect for human rights Most education systems have problems to deal with disadvantaged pupils in a way that reduces their disadvantages Explanations: individual factors, background factors & characteristics of education systems Foci of the presentation: –aspects relevant to education establishments and their room for manœuvre –period of early language development and the transition into (primary) school
Language acquisition and development: from toddler to schoolchild
What is language? Language phonetic and phonology pragmaticsemantic Morpho- syntactic discursiveliteral L 1 L 2 (L3) foreign languages language (s) of schooling dialects & varieties based on Ehlich 2005 Areas of focus for most educational institutions
How is language acquired? language aquisition = complex phenomenon language aquisition = complex phenomenon
The language acquisition continuum Child (4): Did you see that big / long – hum - car? Mother: Yeah, it was a big truck. Child: I like big trucks. Ayşe: We did the - hum - invention of the air balloon... I don‘t know how it‘s called… Teacher: The experiment with the air balloon. Ayşe: The experiment with the air balloon. Quehl, 2009 acquisition learning The shift from intuitive to cognitive language learning entails different methods of support or instruction from implicit to explicit The shift from intuitive to cognitive language learning entails different methods of support or instruction from implicit to explicit
Stages of language acquisition 12-24 months: playing with sounds uttering single words 24-30 months: experimenting with first structures (subject-verb; modifying verbs; using content words, no function words) 30-36 months: producing structures (utterances of 2-5 words with little extra morphology, morphological over- generalization, easier and more productive morphemes come fist) Foundation: gaining 20-30 words per day; developing ‘grammar’ Fine-tuning (5-10 yrs.) refining grammar, extending lexicon etc. Fine-tuning (5-10 yrs.) refining grammar, extending lexicon etc.
went *goed man *mans 2. Discovery of the rule apparent regression 3. Discovery of the rule and exceptions went men went man/men 1. Non-analysed forms: The U-Curve No errors but transition phenomena
Factors affecting language acquisition Socio-economic status Classroom culture Literacy orientations Motivation Opportunities for language use Learning style Cognitive development Interaction Age Individual Familial Educational Interaction Experienced Discrimination Teacher expectations Proficiency in other languages Instructional feedback Motivation Attitudes towards L1 Negative attitudes, low expectations, lack of opportunities for language use affect language acquisition Negative attitudes, low expectations, lack of opportunities for language use affect language acquisition
The Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (as an example) harbours people from roughly 200 nations – such as: Source: Public Record Office, 2009 TurkeyPolandGhanaPhilip- pines ChinaIndiaSouth Africa Malay- sia Ugan- da Leso- tho 55,00020,0005,0004,5003,5002,500400300421 Multingualism in practice Language diversity = ‚normal‘ setting of language development, at least in European urban areas
Reality: Multilingualism as context The individual‘s plurilingual repertoire is made up of various languages he / she has absorbed in various ways (childhood learning, teaching, independent acquisition, etc.) and in which he / she has acquired different skills (conversation, reading, listening, etc.) to different levels (Beacco, 2005).
Europe celebrates….. European Day of Languages International Year of Languages Cel ebrat ion s Open question: how can we optimally support language acquisition in linguistic diversity (resulting in: a balanced combination of access to the majority language(s) [language(s) of schooling] & foreign languages & heritage languages the plurilingual repertoires)
Language X Basic Language Language Mixed Mode 1 2 3 Language Y Th e language mode continuum Bilingual Mode Monolingual Mode It can be any of the speaker‘s languages Degree of activation of languages Language Mode Grosjean 1999
Language mixing in children: Strategies to compensate for possible lack of knowledge Transition phenomenon which tends to disappear with acquisition Language mixing, switching: Indicators of plurilingual competence (and also common practice of ‘monolingual’ adolescents in multilingual areas) Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (1): Switching, mixing (1) tu DO THAT avec la table you do that with the table (2) moi, I GET DOWN me, I get down French-English bilingual 3:8 (in: Jisa, 2000)
Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (2): metalinguistic competence „ Also mir fiel es also sehr leicht, Französisch, Spanisch und ebenso auch Englisch zu lernen, weil Englisch auch römische Wörter benutzt, und da ja Spanisch, Portugiesisch und Französisch romanische Sprachen sind, besteht eine gewisse Ähnlichkeit da zwischen diesen Sprachen, und deswegen, wenn ich das verglichen hab, das ist immer dieselbe Struktur, und manchmal auch die gleichen Wörter, oder ähnliche Wörter. Hier zum Beispiel, hier ist sogar ´n Beispiel im Buch, „Garten“, in Deutsch heißt das „Garten“, in Englisch „garden“, auf Französisch „jardin“, auf Portugiesisch „jardim“ und auf Spanisch heißt es „el jardin“, und deswegen, ja, das kann man schon automatisch so machen.“ (Schüler mit Portugiesisch als Herkunftssprache; Hu, 2003) Early acquisition of language awareness / metalinguistic competence cognitive advantage support of language acquisition in general Early acquisition of language awareness / metalinguistic competence cognitive advantage support of language acquisition in general
Features of ‚plurilingual normality‘ (3): Transfer Cummins, BICS&CALP Common Underlying Proficiency
Examples for Transfer Knowledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction How school genres work (narrating, explaining, etc.) Activation of semantic and syntactic knowledge Knowledge of text structure Learning to use cues to predict meaning Awareness of the variety of purposes for reading and writing Confidence in oneself as literate …
Research suggests “that academic and linguistic skills in a minority language transfer relatively easily to the second language. Simply stated, a child who learns to read in Spanish at home, or in school, does not have to start from the beginning when learning to read in English”. (Baker, 2006, p. 330) “Foundations of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education” Transfer = advantage – PROVIDED THAT IT IS SUPPORTED BY TEACHING Transfer = advantage – PROVIDED THAT IT IS SUPPORTED BY TEACHING
Summary: multilingual language acquisition Acquisition takes place by unconsciously generating rules – learning takes place explicitly Errors indicate that learning is taking place Switching, mixing, metalinguistic repertoires, transfer are indicators for succeeding and successful development of … … plurilingual repertoires …
3. Language support in early years Principles and examples Source: http ://www.ojeichwachse.de/wp- content/uploads/2011/03/Tegen-je-baby-praten-is-goed- voor-zijn-ontwikkeling.jpg
Cummins’ Quadrants Model of Academic Language Oral: talking in the family, following simple directions, face to face discussions Oral: talking in the family, following simple directions, face to face discussions Written: informal mails Written: informal mails Oral: phone conversations Oral: phone conversations Written: notes, written directions Written: notes, written directions Oral: demonstrations, audio-visual assisted lessons, science experiments Oral: demonstrations, audio-visual assisted lessons, science experiments Written: social studies project Written: social studies project Oral: lecture, explaining new & abstract concepts Written: Reading a textbook, matching concepts & application C BD A Cognitively Undemanding Cognitively Demanding Context Embedded Context Reduced Aim of early language support should be to help children move from quadrant A to D, in terms of emergent literacy forms. From intuitive, implicit… …to cognitive, explicit strategies
Questions for discussion in the groups Language support will succeed to the extent that it follows children’s preferred acquisition or learning strategies. 1.What features of your context support the implementation of this principle? 2.What features of your context are likely to undermine the implementation of this principle? 3.If you could start an innovation programme for the implementation of this principle in your context, what measure would you introduce as a first step?