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Flexible Grouping What is it? How can I use it? Presented by Charity Dowell National Conference on Singapore Math Strategies 2011 Presented by Charity Dowell National Conference on Singapore Math Strategies 2011

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Differentiate Instruction… Foster Independence & ownership…. Manage the classroom… Assess, re-teach, enrich, & cover curriculum… … learning gaps…

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1980’s homogeneous grouping Results – small effect size – inequality “…in other words it does little to narrow the gap between the low ability students and the middle and the high ability students” Marzano, Classroom Instruction That Works, p.85

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Cooperative Learning/Flexible Grouping Benefits: » Positive Interdependence » Face to Face pro-motive interaction » Individual and group accountability » Interpersonal and small group skills » Group Processing » Opportunities for decision making, aka problem solving Cooperative Learning/Flexible Grouping Benefits: » Positive Interdependence » Face to Face pro-motive interaction » Individual and group accountability » Interpersonal and small group skills » Group Processing » Opportunities for decision making, aka problem solving

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Definition of Flexible Grouping: The informal grouping and regrouping of students throughout the school day based a upon a variety of criteria to create learning experiences that are focused on maintaining consistently high expectations for all students. How does it relate to Singapore Math Strategies?

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There is a better way… differentiation through flexible grouping.

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Research Says Flexible Grouping… Raises school achievement (Gentry, 1999). Equips students with social skills and conflict resolution abilities (Frydentall, LeWald, Walls, & Zarring, 2001). Provides ownership of classroom behaviors (Baugous & Bendery, 2000). Provides opportunities for social interactions (Valentino, 2000). Increases individual achievement levels (Gentry, 1999). Raises school achievement (Gentry, 1999). Equips students with social skills and conflict resolution abilities (Frydentall, LeWald, Walls, & Zarring, 2001). Provides ownership of classroom behaviors (Baugous & Bendery, 2000). Provides opportunities for social interactions (Valentino, 2000). Increases individual achievement levels (Gentry, 1999). 8

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Planning for Grouping : Questions to Consider When does grouping benefit students? When does grouping facilitate instruction? Which activities lend themselves to group work? How do you determine group membership? Teacher or student lead?

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Classroom Activities Grouping OptionsTeacher’s RoleStudent Activities Whole Group/ Small Groups Explains procedures Provides instructional scaffolding Facilitates discussion Provides explicit instruction Affirms student diversity Outlining day’s agenda/schedule Giving an overview of concepts Sharing personal works Presenting strategies Developing background knowledge Individual Guides individual development Encourages individual student interests Independence & Stamina Applying key concepts, strategies and skills Composing written response Developing understanding Creating own investigations

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Flexible Grouping Collaborative Establishes expectations Explicit step by step instructions Scaffolding Participate in short term groups Practice concepts Apply strategies & skills Performance Based Identify student needs Guide understanding Opportunities for success Positive reinforcement Concrete & pictorial representations Participate in short term groups Develop understanding of specific concepts Practice strategies & skills Succeed Pairs or independent groups (never more than 2-4) Identify students’ interests & needs Models instructional strategies Anchor charts & expectations. Assisting partners Tutoring peers Collaborating Practicing academic skills Interpersonal stills Example: The Daily 5 Example: The Daily 5

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Think Pair & Share Practice Games Interest Based Activities Skills Based Activities

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Management… How can flexible grouping be incorporated into the classroom? Centers/Workstations Cooperative Learning Peer tutoring Assistants, volunteers Student choices Centers/Workstations Cooperative Learning Peer tutoring Assistants, volunteers Student choices

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Now let’s see what it looks like in a real classroom…Work Stations…

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Where are the bubble students? Urgent! What is our purpose? Urgent! What is our purpose? Who’s in the group? How much time should I spend with each group? Achievement gaps occur when students are “Left behind”, “Just don’t get it”. Use cooperative learning time to address those needs. Identify specific needs & interests.

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Forming groups How do you form groups? Be creative Share ideas with your neighbor. Birthdays in seasons Puzzle pieces Stickers on card, find matching sticker Popsicle sticks with names – last one picked chooses group

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Ideas for Organization: Appointments TimeName 8_______________________________________________ 9 10_______________________________________________ 11_______________________________________________ 12_______________________________________________ 1 2

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Singapore Math Strategies using Flexible Grouping

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Number Bonds Students in K-2 study number facts to 10. Students spend a significant amount of time on each number. Students study number facts (bonds) to understand part-whole relationships. After students master numbers through 9 they work on making bonds of 10. Ten is an anchor number. Students in K-2 study number facts to 10. Students spend a significant amount of time on each number. Students study number facts (bonds) to understand part-whole relationships. After students master numbers through 9 they work on making bonds of 10. Ten is an anchor number.

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Number Bonds

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Number Bracelets Practice number bonds & whole to part. Addition is commutative: Young mathematicians need hands on experience to discover this principle.

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How many number bonds are there for a for any given number? Tens Frame Continue making number bonds with tens frames. How many bonds were you able to create? Tip: Use a circle map to record your answers.

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10 9+110+0 0+105+5 2+87+3 4+61+9 3+7 8+2 6+4 Ten bracelet Number bonds Tens family song My head My hands My toes

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Number Bond Books Create number bond boards for all of the bonds you are working on. Leave out 1 of the numbers. In the blank box include a piece of Velcro. Have a set of numbers 1-9 with velcro on the back. Students fill in the missing numbers to complete the number bond Create number bond boards for all of the bonds you are working on. Leave out 1 of the numbers. In the blank box include a piece of Velcro. Have a set of numbers 1-9 with velcro on the back. Students fill in the missing numbers to complete the number bond

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“Make Eleven” Groups: Three students Materials: None Directions: This game is great when you have a few minutes between classes or subjects and want to practice addition without getting out materials. All three students stand in a circle and put their right hands in a closed fist position, behind their backs. Without anyone seeing, each student opens their fist to show one, two, three, four, or five fingers. Together, they count to three, and then put their opened right hands inside the circle. They count their fingers. The goal is the make a sum of eleven. Groups: Three students Materials: None Directions: This game is great when you have a few minutes between classes or subjects and want to practice addition without getting out materials. All three students stand in a circle and put their right hands in a closed fist position, behind their backs. Without anyone seeing, each student opens their fist to show one, two, three, four, or five fingers. Together, they count to three, and then put their opened right hands inside the circle. They count their fingers. The goal is the make a sum of eleven.

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“The Facts of Life” (A.K.A. Math War) Groups: Two or more Materials: Playing or Number Cards Directions: A student distributes cards, face down, to student players. Each player turns over two cards and adds them. The student with the greatest sum is the winner and gets all the cards. In the event of a tie, cards from the “round” are left on the table. Another round of adding is done. Winner takes all!

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“Facts on the Brain” Groups: Three students Materials: Playing or Number Cards Directions: the object of this game is to practice finding sums and missing addends. One player will be the sum finder, while the other two will be addends. 1. The sum finder gives each addend a pile of cards that are face down. 2. The sum finder counts aloud,” 1,2,3!” 3. On “3,” each addend lifts a card from his or her pile and places it on their heads. 4. The sum finder announces the sum of the two numbers. 5. Knowing the sum, each addend looks at their partner’s number to determine their missing addend. 6. The first student to announce the correct missing addend wins that round and gets both cards. 7. The students repeat steps 2 through 6 and continue until their cards decks are used. 8. When finished with the decks, students rotate roles and begin practicing again. Groups: Three students Materials: Playing or Number Cards Directions: the object of this game is to practice finding sums and missing addends. One player will be the sum finder, while the other two will be addends. 1. The sum finder gives each addend a pile of cards that are face down. 2. The sum finder counts aloud,” 1,2,3!” 3. On “3,” each addend lifts a card from his or her pile and places it on their heads. 4. The sum finder announces the sum of the two numbers. 5. Knowing the sum, each addend looks at their partner’s number to determine their missing addend. 6. The first student to announce the correct missing addend wins that round and gets both cards. 7. The students repeat steps 2 through 6 and continue until their cards decks are used. 8. When finished with the decks, students rotate roles and begin practicing again.

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How do I assess this type of learning?

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Aspects of formative assessment

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http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html http://www.syntiro.org/resources/handouts/PDF/handout%20-%20fg%20- %20tips%20on%20managing.pdf http://www.syntiro.org/resources/handouts/PDF/handout%20-%20fg%20- %20tips%20on%20managing.pdf http://ezinearticles.com/?A-Dozen-Surefire-Tips-on-Flexible-Grouping-and-Small-Group- Learning&id=4872300 http://ezinearticles.com/?A-Dozen-Surefire-Tips-on-Flexible-Grouping-and-Small-Group- Learning&id=4872300 Marzano, R. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: research based strategies that work. McRiel: Danvers, MA. Moser, & Boushey. (2006). The Daily 5: Fostering literacy independence in the classroom. Crystal Spring Books: http://www.learner.org/workshops/readingk2/pdf/session6/FlexibleGroups.2.pdf www.rtsd.org/59996823234213/.../FLEXIBLE_GROUPING_WS.ppt www.rtsd.org/59996823234213/.../FLEXIBLE_GROUPING_WS.ppt http://www.fcpsteach.org/docs/Differentiation.packet.pdf http://www.docstoc.com/docs/25205421/IMPROVEMENT-OF-OFF-TASK-BEHAVIOR-OF- ELEMENTARY-AND-HIGH-SCHOOL http://www.docstoc.com/docs/25205421/IMPROVEMENT-OF-OFF-TASK-BEHAVIOR-OF- ELEMENTARY-AND-HIGH-SCHOOL http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (1991): Blueprints for Thinking in the Cooperative Classroom. H.B.E. Forsten, National Conference on Singapore Math Strategies 2010

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