5 1. Kidneys Main organs of excretion. Remove excess water, urea & other excess mineral wastes from the body.Act as filters to remove wastes that are collected and transported by the blood.E.g. Surplus in water or electrolyte (salt) in blood = kidneys excrete in the urine.
6 2. LungsEvery time we exhale, we get rid of small amounts of water vapor and CO2.CO2 is the waste product of cells that must be removed from the body so you can take in oxygen.
7 3. SkinExcretes excess water, salts, and small amounts of urea through sweating.
9 The Urinary System Made up of: Left and right kidneysUretersBladderUrethraRemoves wastes and toxins from the blood and produces urine.Urine: made of water, excess salts, & urea
10 Kidney Structure Bean shaped Either side of the spinal column, near lower backSize of your fistEach are attached to a renal artery & a renal vein
11 Renal Vessels Renal artery – blood from aorta unfiltered and full of bodily wastesRenal vein – filtered blood
12 Ureters and BladderUreter leaves each kidney with fluid containing excess water, salts, urea & other waste productsUreters lead to the bladder; liquid wastes are deposited/stored hereExpulsion of wastes controlled by specific sphincter muscles – voluntary control.
23 2. Re-Absorption - Tubules Some filtrates reabsorbed by active transportvaluable & can’t be lostWater returns to blood through osmosis99% of the water that is filtered out of BC is reabsorbed into your blood
28 4. ExcretionPurified blood returns to the body through the renal vein, which runs to the Inferior Vena CavaUrine moves from the nephrons to ureters and goes to the bladder for storageOnce urine is ready to leave the body, the urine will be expelled through the urethra.Stretch receptors in bladder
33 Kidney FailureYou have two kidneys in the body located on either side of the spine and extend a little below the ribs.Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs and is about the size of a fist.The kidneys receive approximately 10% of the blood that is pumped out of our heart every minute.
34 Your kidneys are responsible for the following: Regulate fluidsBalance chemicalsRemove wastesSecrete hormones
35 Condition Explanation: Progressive in natureAnemia possible – lack of ironMalnutrition (lack of appetite)Decrease well-beingIncreased risk for heart disease
36 Toxins build up in blood Weight gain (excess fluids, swollen ankles, puffiness)Fluid imbalances – dizziness – nausea
37 Treatment Options: General Limit fluid intake, high carb, low protein, low potassium dietToo much potassium can cause irregular heartbeat
38 Haemodialysis Most common method Use of a machine (size of dishwasher) – blood flow through special filter to remove and filter wastesClean blood returned to bodyStrict schedule – 3 times a week for 3 to 5 hours each time
40 Side effectsLess energyLoss of timeOnce a month blood is tested to see how effective dialysis is – may not work forever!
41 Peritoneal Dialysis Removes extra water, wastes, and chemicals Cleansing solution passed through catheter into abdomenAfter a couple of hours the solution is drainedDoes not require a machineStrict dietMore recent advances, more flexibility (done at home)
42 Kidney Transplantation Receive a healthy kidney from a living donor or a recently deceased donorWhen effective recovers quality of health AND lifeYields longer life expectancyCould be long waiting lists (shortage of donors)Typical Surgery Risks (bleeding, infection, etc.)Anti-rejection medications after surgery – may weaken immune systemRisk of rejection (body doesn’t accept kidney)