Presentation on theme: "Responding to an emergency situation. Chain of survival, moving a victim, and Heimlich maneuver."— Presentation transcript:
Responding to an emergency situation. Chain of survival, moving a victim, and Heimlich maneuver
Chain of Survival The chain of survival is a sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chance of survival. It consists of three actions: check, call and care.
Check The first part of check, call, care is check. In this step you are checking two very important components. 1: Is the scene safe? 2: Is the victim unconscious?
Check the scene It is important that before you do anything you check to make sure that the scene is safe for you to be around. If the scene is determined to be unsafe, you must stand clear and wait for EMS (Emergency Medical Services) to arrive. Remember, there is no point in trying to help someone if you’re just going to become the next victim. (house fires)
Examples of an un-safe scene Some examples of an un-safe scene are fire, smell of gas, unstable construction of a building, water and electricity, or falling boxes, crates, beams, etc.
Is the victim conscious? After checking the scene and determining it’s safe, you want to always check the victim to make sure they’re unresponsive. This is done by tapping and shouting, “Hey, Hey, are you alright?”
Is the victim conscious? It is very possible that your victim may just be sleeping, so it’s very important that you make sure there is an actual emergency before starting the chain of survival.
Call Now you have checked the scene and verified that the victim in unconscious. The next step is very crucial, you must call 9-1-1 or tell someone else to call 9-1- 1 and order them to bring an AED. You will learn what an AED is later in this unit.
Should I move them? There are only certain instances when you should move someone you think may have suffered an injury, they are: 1. If the scene becomes unsafe 2. To get to someone more seriously hurt 3. To get to a firm, flat area to perform CPR 4. If they’re lying face down and you cannot check for breathing.
Moving an unconscious victim If the victim is lying face down and you need to check their breathing you may need to roll them over. Follow these directions very closely to prevent more harm. 1. Make sure arms legs are straight 2. Move the arm closest to you straight over the victim’s head and put the other arm down at their side 3. Place the hand closest to the head around the neck and brace the victim’s head in case of neck injury 4. Grab the victim by the waist, pocket, or belt loop and pull them toward you while holding onto the neck. 5. Once on their back, place both arms to their side and uncross the feet (if they got crossed during the roll)
Recovery position If your victim has started breathing again and has a pulse, but are still un-responsive to you, you need to put them in the recovery position. Follow these steps: 1. Raise the arm furthest from you straight over the victim’s head 2. Cross the arm closest to you across the victim’s chest 3. Bend the victim’s knee closest to you so their foot is flat on the ground and their knee is up 4. Brace the victim’s neck in case of neck injury 5. Grab the victim’s waist, pocket, or belt loop and roll the victim away from you. 6. Their knee should form a kind of “kick stand” and their face should rest on their arm. Check to make sure that their face is not in the ground. This is important so they don’t choke if they vomit.
Heimlich Maneuver The Heimlich maneuver is used on a conscious victim who is choking and has lost the ability to breathe. If you came across someone who was choking, and you could hear gasps of air, encourage them to keep coughing. DO NOT HIT THEM ON THE BACK! You could tell if the victim is choking if they use the universal sign for choking, which are both hands around the throat.
Heimlich Maneuver If the victim stops gasping and you can not hear anymore coughing, then they are choking and need assistance. The first thing you must do is get consent. Consent means permission, and you must have the victim’s consent before performing the Heimlich maneuver. Failure to get consent could result in legal troubles.
Heimlich Maneuver You obtain consent by saying, “are you choking? I know how to do the Heimlich maneuver, can I help?” If they say yes, you should call 911 and may begin the Heimlich maneuver. However, if they say no, you may not touch them. You should, however, still call 911. If they pass out, you have what is known as implied consent. Implied consent means they would probably allow you to help them if they knew they were unconscious.
Performing the Heimlich Maneuver To perform the Heimlich maneuver, you need to place one foot in between the victim’s legs. Find the belly button with your middle finger of either hand. Make a fist with the other hand and place your thumb above your middle finger. Cover your fist with your other hand, and then apply inward and upward thrusts until the object comes loose.