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FIRST AID Unit #2 Miss Martini. Emergency Action Principles should be done in case of ANY emergency Check Scene Safe? Clues # of victims Bystanders to.

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Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID Unit #2 Miss Martini. Emergency Action Principles should be done in case of ANY emergency Check Scene Safe? Clues # of victims Bystanders to."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIRST AID Unit #2 Miss Martini

2 Emergency Action Principles should be done in case of ANY emergency Check Scene Safe? Clues # of victims Bystanders to help Victim Injuries Life threatening conditions  Unconscious  Trouble breathing  Chest pain or pressure  No pulse  Bleeding severely

3 Call (and get AED) ( If alone, call first then start first aid or CPR) 911 or local emergency # for ambulance Give Exact location Telephone # What happened # and condition of victims What help is being given DON’T HANG UP TILL OPERATOR DOES!

4 Care for victim Life threatening injuries 1 st Less severe Help victim stay calm, relaxed

5 Deciding to Act Consent to give first aid Actual consent Oral or written permission from a mentally sound adult to give first aid Implied consent Assuming the victim would grant permission to give first aid if they were capable Good Samaritan Laws Protect those who give first aid in good faith Complete legal protection  Properly trained  Using correct procedures and skills * Purpose is to minimize fear of legal consequences

6 Universal Precautions Follow in any situation with possible contact with blood and other bodily fluids Steps taken to prevent spread of diseases. Wear disposable latex gloves Wash hands thoroughly Use breathing barriers

7 Checking Unconscious Adult See text pg 723 Check, Call, Care *SUPINE/ PRONE “Are you alright?” “Go call 911.” Check for Breathing (A, B, C’s) Look, Listen, Feel (approx. 5 sec) Open airway (tilt head back, lift chin) Look for signs of life  (no >10 sec.) Breathing: recovery position GASTRIC DISTENTION-  when rescuer is ventilating too hard or too long  Can be minimized by limiting the amount of air ventilated

8 Checking Conscious Adult Look for life threatening conditions “What happened?” Severe bleeding? Check head to toe Note any bleeding, cuts, bruises, bumps, depressions, or pain Abnormal breathing? Gasping, gurgling, unusually fast, slow, or painful Skin looks and feels? Move each body part that doesn’t hurt Take deep breathe Unsure about condition- call emergency # Comfort victim

9 Conscious Choking Adult Victim can no longer speak, cough, breath “Call 911.” Five Back blows Five Abdominal thrusts (if pregnant or obese give chest thrusts) Stand behind victim Find belly button Make fist with other hand Place thumb side of fist against middle of victims abdomen (just above belly button) Grab fist with other hand Quick upward thrusts Continue alternating until object is up, victim can breath, coughs on own, or victim becomes unconscious

10 Recognizing a heart attack Signs Chest discomfort or pain (may spread to other body areas) Sweating Nausea Shortness of breath General ill feeling Deaths are reduced by recognizing early symptoms of heart attack Call for help See text pg 739

11 Cardiac Chain of Survival 4 links 1. Early recognition and access to emergency system - call Early CPR - keeps blood and oxygen flow to organs, prevents brain damage and death 3. Early Defibrillation - Automated External Defibrillator (AED) - Electronic shock to heart - Give one shock, then 5 cycles CPR (2 min long) - Do not re-check in between shocks and CPR unless you see obvious signs of life (color change, coughing, spitting up, chest moving with breaths) 4. Early Advanced Life support - Paramedics

12 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) See text pg 734 No signs of circulation, No AED, Unconscious Tap and Shout “Are you ok?” “Call 911.” Open airway (A, B, C’s) Locate hand position Find center of sternum, fingers off the chest Elbows locked

13 CPR 30 compressionsRatio 30:2 1 1/2 -2 inches deep Takes about 10 sec (rate of approx 100 per min) 2 rescue breaths Lasts about 1 sec each GASTRIC DISTENTION-  when rescuer is ventilating too hard or too long  Can be minimized by limiting the amount of air ventilated Once CPR is started continue until Scene is unsafe AED available Too exhausted Someone takes over (Advanced Life support) Obvious signs of life (color change, coughing, spitting up, chest moving)

14 Unconscious Choking Adult 2 rescue breaths don’t go in, reposition, try again, still don’t go, assume airway is blocked Find hand position 30 chest compressions Look for object Grasp tongue and lower jaw b/t thumb & fingers, lift up Finger sweep if you see something 2 rescue breaths If don’t go in continue with 30 compressions Repeat above process

15 Unconscious Choking Adult Stop cycles if Object removed Chest rises with rescue breaths Check for signs of circulation If none continue with compressions and breaths Victim starts breathing on own EMS arrives & takes over

16 Injuries Check Scene Victim Life threatening Head to toe Call 911 Care Give care until help arrives

17 Injuries Types Wounds/ Burns (Soft Tissue) Muscle, Bone, & Joint

18 Bleeding Use Latex Gloves Arterial- bright red (oxygenated) Venous- darker blood ** Approximately 2 pint per 25 pounds

19 Care for Wounds (External Bleeding) Minor Wounds Cleaned & covered Open Wounds Control bleeding Prevent infection  Clean & cover Closed Wounds Apply cold Major Wounds Call “911” and control bleeding

20 Clues to Internal Bleeding Tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body Cool, moist, pale or bluish skin Vomiting or coughing up blood Excessive thirst Confused, faint, drowsy, or unconscious ** Serious Internal Bleeding- Call “911” immediately

21 Muscles, Bones, & Joints Muscles Strain: tearing or stretching of muscles or tendons Tendons- strong fibers that attach muscle to bone Bones Fracture: a break, chip, or crack in a bone Types:  Open (compound)  Closed (simple) Symptoms: Deformity, snap, and pain may be present

22 Muscles, Bones, & Joints Joints Sprain: tearing of ligaments at a joint Wrist, knee, ankle, & finger Ligaments- strong, tough, soft tissue bands that attach bone to bone Dislocation: the movement of a bone out of its position in the joint. Usually caused by a violent force tearing the ligaments that hold the bone in place. Finger  Apply ice, immobilize and go to doctor  **** Do not try to pull it out

23 Muscles, Bones, & Joints Signs of severe injury: Can not move or use body part A snap or a pop is heard Bone is visible Significant bruising, swelling, or deformity

24 Care for Muscle, Bone & Joint Injuries R- Rest I- Immobilize (splint) C- Cold Apply cold for up to 72 hours 20 min on 20 min off E- Elevate ** Keep part immobile, if have to move victim, 1 st splint injury. Do not elevate a severe injury unless it has been splinted

25 Shock (see text pg 733) Circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body Life threatening condition Types Insulin Traumatic (sudden injury) Anaphylactic (sting)

26 Shock Signals of Traumatic Shock Restlessness or irritability Altered consciousness Pale, cool, moist skin (clammy) Looks disoriented Rapid breathing (irregular shallow) Rapid pulse Dilated pupils Best treatment-  lie victim down, elevate legs, cover lightly

27 Caring for Shock Lie down and rest Control external bleeding Maintain normal body temp Elevate legs if injuries allow Only water at room temperature Make sure advanced help is on the way

28 Control Bleeding Cover with a dressing and press firmly, applying direct pressure Cover dressing with non-stick bandage (rollar/ pressure bandage) w/ direct pressure If bleeding doesn’t stop Add additional dressings over top of original dressings Don’t remove objects lodged in wound.

29 Immobilizing Muscle, Bone & Joint Injuries Splint: technique used to keep injured part from moving Types Anatomic- Uses another part of victims body Soft- easily shaped to injured area to minimize movement Rigid- hard object that minimizes movement

30 Splinting Only if victim must be moved Only if you can do without causing more pain Splint in position you found it Splint above and below site of injury Check for proper circulation before and after splinting (feeling, warmth, & color)

31 Steps to Splinting Support injured area Check circulation (feeling, warmth, color) Place splint Tie splint in place Recheck circulation

32 Sudden Illness Stroke – blocked or broken blood vessels in brain Seizure Do not hold or restrain victim Do not place anything in their mouth Remove objects that may cause injury Diabetic Emergency Help victim remain calm & get medication Poisoning/ Allergic Reactions Call 911 & Poison Control #

33 Caring for Sudden Illnesses Care for life threatening conditions Have victim rest in comfortable position Keep from getting chilled or over heated No food or water Reassure victim Send someone to meet EMS Ask about medical conditions & medications Monitor, try to minimize risk of shock Watch for changes in consciousness or breathing


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