2Breathing Emergencies Objectives Understand the breathing process.Recall signs and symptoms of respiratory distress.Describe the care for a person experiencing respiratory distress.Explain some common causes of obstructed airways
3Breathing Emergencies Outline Respiratory System—ReviewRecognizing Breathing EmergenciesCauses of Respiratory DistressCare for Respiratory DistressClosing
4Respiratory System Review The respiratory system consists of the upper and lower airway and the lungs.The principal systems that work together for breathing to occur are the respiratory, circulatory, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems.The diaphragm and chest muscles contract and relax, causing inhalation and exhalation.
5Respiratory System Review The body requires a constant supply of oxygen for survival.Without oxygen, cells begin to die in 4 to 6 minutes. Some tissues, such as the brain, are very sensitive to oxygen deprivation.4-6 minutes = possible brain damage6-10 minutes = likely brain damage10+ minutes = certain irreversible brain damage
6RECOGNIZING BREATHING EMERGENCIES Breathing emergencies are detected during the check for life-threatening conditions.Breathing emergencies include respiratory distress and respiratory arrest.By recognizing respiratory distress and taking immediate action, you may prevent respiratory arrest.
7SPECIFIC CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS AsthmaAsthma is a condition that narrows the air passages and makes breathing more difficult.EmphysemaEmphysema is a disease in which the lungs lose their ability to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen effectively.BronchitisBronchitis is a disease resulting in inflammation of the lining of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles that causes a build-up of mucus that obstructs air passages.Anaphylactic ShockAnaphylactic shock is a condition that results in swelling of the air passages that restrict breathing.The condition is usually caused by a severe allergic reaction to food, insect stings, or a medication, such as penicillin.
8Obstructed Airways Anatomical vs. Mechanical Anatomical: Body part (i.e. throat swelling closed)Mechanical: Foreign object (i.e. food, toys, coins)Common Causes?Signs of choking:Watery eyes, red face, scared look, rocking motion, pointing to chest/throatSome sound w/ wheezing, high pitched whistle – no soundComplete vs. Partial ObstructionUniversal Distress Sign for Choking (hands around throat)
9Care For Respiratory Distress Respiratory distress may lead to respiratory arrest if not cared for immediately.Make sure someone has called or the local emergency number for help.Signs and symptoms of different kinds of respiratory distress are often similar. You do not need to know the exact cause to provide care.Help the victim rest in a comfortable position. Usually sitting is more comfortable because breathing is easier.Maintain normal body temperature. If a room is hot or stuffy, attempt to reduce the heat.Assist the victim in taking his or her prescribed medication.
10Unconscious Choking Victim Check the Scene and the VictimCheck the Victim for ConsciousnessTap and gently shake the person“Are You Okay, Are You Okay”If person does not respondSend Someone to call 911Know Your ABC’sA- AirwayB- BreathingC- CirculationFor adult or child, use modified CPRFor an infant, also use modified CPR
11Conscious Choking Victim Choking is a breathing emergency that can lead to deathCommon Causes of Choking Include:Trying to swallow large pieces of foodWearing DenturesEating while talking excitedly or laughing or eating to fastA person’s airway can be partially or completely obstructedPartial obstructionCan cough in an attempt to dislodge objectComplete ObstructionUnable to cough speak or breathA person who is choking may clutch at their throat.Universal sign for choking
12Conscious Choking Adult or Child Get consent, tell them your name and that you are certified (if they are under 18, ask the guardian)Tell the victim to keep coughingBend the person forward at the waist and give 5 back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of the handIf the object does not come out, stand the victim up, place your fist with the thumb side against the middle of the person’s abdomen, just above the navel.Cover the fist with the other hand, and give 5 quick upward thrusts.Continue this process until:The object is forced outThe person can breatheThe person becomes unconscious
13Conscious Choking Infant Ask the guardian if you can help your baby, tell them your name and that you are certifiedSupport the infants head and neck at all times, placing your thumb and fingers on the jawPosition the body so that the head angled downwardsDeliver 5 firm back blows between the infants shoulder bladesPlace your other hand behind the infants head and neck, and place on your forearm, still angled downwardsPlace two or three fingers in the centers of the infants chest, just below the nipple lineCompress the chest about 1½ inches 5 timesContinue this process until:The object is forced outThe infant can cry or breatheThe infant becomes unconscious
14Practice Practice Session Unconscious Victim Check Conscious Choking Infant