Objectives of the lecture At the end of this lecture the student will be able to: Define FIRST AID. Identify the Purposes of first aid. Determine the Principles of first aid List the first aid kit. Discuss Cleanup, Handling and Location of body fluids or matter Describe the major first aid techniques.
WHAT IS FIRST AID MEAN? It is the immediate and temporary care given to any victim of an accident or having sudden illness until medical help can be obtained. Any person at any level of education or even lay person need to learn first aid to save the life of people in the accident situation, at home or in work settings
What are the purposes of first aid? The purposes of First Aid are to : save life Prevent deterioration of the victim’s condition Reduce level of pain Promote recovery
What are the principles of first aid Emergency action principles are the guiding rules to be employed by the first person (s), on the scene of an emergency. The nature of emergencies is such that it is impossible to prescribe a specific list of actions to be completed before the event happens, so principles form a framework on which to base forward actions.
What are the principles of first aid cont. The rescuer should assess the situation for Danger. The reason is that rescuers do not become secondary victims of any incident. A typical assessment for Danger would involve observation of the surroundings, starting with the cause of the accident (e.g. a falling object) and expanding outwards to include any situational hazards (e.g. fast moving traffic) and history or secondary information given by witnesses, bystanders or the emergency services (e.g. an attacker still waiting nearby). If at any time the risk from any hazard poses a significant danger to the rescuer, they should consider whether they should approach the scene (or leave the scene if appropriate).
What are the principles of first aid cont. RRemain calm in an emergency situation DDetermine which person is to be attended first FFirst, restore breathing, then control bleeding and prevent shock RRemember that first aid is only a temporary step and medical help should follow KKeep the victim away from danger sources
What are the principles of first aid? cont. HHelp the victim quickly and carefully UUnbutton shirts, clothes and unit belts. TTear clothes over wounds or burns KKeep the person quiet, calm and warm to conserve oxygen MMake sure that he does not se the injury if possible DDo not tell him the gravity of the situation
What are the principles of first aid cont. Quickly collect information from the person (if possible) or surrounding people. This information usually includes assessment, which include CHALET (Casualties, Hazards, Access, Location, Emergency Services, Type of Incident)CHALET
What are the principles of first aid cont. Use the ABC;D & E system and it's variations, where the rescuer checks the basics of life on the casualty (primarily their breathing in modern protocols)ABC;D & E system Call for medical help. Accurate reporting of this important information helps emergency services dispatch appropriate resource to the incident, in good time and to the right place. Or if it is possible, transfer the afflicted person (s) to the nearest hospital if you can without harming him Carry out the steps of first aid quickly and efficiently Cleanup, Handling and Locate body fluids or matter using the universal precautions
Cleanup, Handling and Location of body fluids or matter Whenever it is necessary to clean up or handle any blood, body fluids, vomit, fecal matter and / or urine, the following should be observed: Disposable gloves should be worn during the clean up process Surfaces soiled with the above substances should be promptly disinfected using a bleach solution (1 part bleach to 10 parts)
Cleanup, handling and Location of body fluids or matter cont. Whenever possible, disposable towels, tissues, or other materials should then be placed in a plastic bag and discarded. Non-disposable cleaning equipment and materials such as towels and mops, should be also disinfected with bleach solution Those who are cleaning should avoid exposure of open skin lesions or mucous membranes to the blood or body fluids Persons involved in the cleanup should thoroughly wash their hands afterwards even when wearing gloves
What are the first aid kit? The first aid kit consists of two elements which are medical supplies and certain drugs & antiseptic solution 1-Medical supplies: Medical supplies, sterile gauze, hot water bottle, sling, thermometer, adhesive tape, scissors, cotton, tongue depressor, torch, ice bag, plastic gloves.
What are the first aid kit? Cont. 2- Certain drugs & antiseptic solution as Alcohol, antipyretic, antidiarrhea, piece of sugar, disinfectant solution as betadine
Location and Contents of the First Aid Kit Each place as home, school, university, should be equipped with Grade A metal first aid kit, mounted in an accessible place and in full view The content includes Four (4) inch bandage compress (2 package) Two (2) inch bandage compress (1 package) One (1) inch adhesive compress (2 package) Forty (40) inch triangular bandage (2 package) with (2) safety pins Eye dressing packet (1 package) 24x72 inch gauze compress (1 package) One (1) pair ;latex gloves (1 package) One (1) mouth to mouth airway (1 package)
Major first aid techniques 1-victim assessment: Find the most life-threatening conditions by assessing and caring for the three most important systems in the ABCD order of importance Determine consciousness by tapping the victim on the shoulder and asking loudly, ARE YOU OK? A person who is conscious will respond and will not have stopped breathing.
1-victim assessment: cont. Respiratory system ( A-airway open? Is there (B-breathing?) Circulatory system ( C-circulation: pulse?, hemorrhage, skin condition: color, moisture) Nervous system: ( D- disability spinal cord response? Level of responsiveness? Remove the victim from the offended area i.e., prevent Exposure(E-xposure?)
Major first aid techniques cont. 2-Save lives by maintaining a victim’s vital need. The ABC rules of first aid are: An openAirway Adequate Breathing Sufficient Circulation
3- Positioning the victim If the victim is unconscious, position him on his back. Roll him as a unit without twisting any body part. Tip the head and check for breathing then for obstruction in the mouth
Major first aid techniques cont. 4- Mouth to mouth breathing: If the victim is not breathing, keep the head tilted, pinch the nostrils together and blow into the mouth while covering the victim’s mouth with your mouth. Be sure you have made a good seal. Give two (2) big breath. Use barrier provided in the first aid kit.
4- Mouth to mouth breathing cont. Then check the pulse& breathing. If the person is still not breathing but have pulse, continue mouth to mouth breathing.
If the victim does not have pulse and not breathing, CPR is needed. If you are not trained in CPR, give mouth to mouth breathing.
Major first aid techniques cont. 5- Clearing the airways: On occasion, someone gets something lodged in their throat. If the object completely stops the breathing process, the person only has four (4)minutes then he will have brain damage due to lack of oxygen. A person whose airway is blocked can not cough, speak, or breath
5- clearing the airways: cont. Steps of clearing airway: 1- stand behind the victim 2-thumb side of the fist should be against the abdomen 3-fist should be between the naval and the rib cage 4-grasp the fist with other hand 5- give four quick upward thrusts 6- repeat until effective NB: when giving abdominal thrust to an unconscious victim, he should be lying on his back with the head sideway
Major first aid techniques cont. 6-Controling bleeding A person can bleed to death in less than a minute; there for, it is imperative that action be taken immediately. The loss of a pint of blood by a child and a quart by an adult may have disastrous results. Even loss of small amount of blood produces weakness and possibly shock.
6-Controling bleeding cont Methods used to control bleeding: A- direct pressure: Place a gauze pad, clean handkerchief, clean cloth..etc directly on the wound and press firmly with gloved hand. If no materials are available, apply pressure with your hand or finger. Raised the inured part higher than the heart except where there is a broken bone. Maintain pressure until bleeding subsides
6-Controling bleeding cont. Methods used to control bleeding cont. B- pressure point Severe bleeding may be partially controlled by using the fingers or hand to press the supplying blood vessels against the underlying body. Point for pressure are underneath the upper arm and in the groin are near the pelvis of each side of the body. Pressure at these points slow bleeding