Heart attack Caused by the long-lasting interruption of blood supply – the heart cells are damaged or die. Symptoms: Chest pain (can radiate to the left arm or neck), shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, anxiety. Immediate treatment: Oxygen, aspirin, sublingual nitro-glycerine. ! Untreated can cause a heart failure!
Stroke Rapid loss of brain function due to lack of blood supply 2 mechanisms: Lack of blood flow (blood clot) or bleeding Symptoms: Inability to move on one side of the body, inability to understand or formulate a speech, inability to see one side of the visual field. ! Can lead to permanent damage or death!
Unconsciousness People do not respond to environmental stimuli. Temporary – fainting (dehydration, drop in blood pressure, decrease of oxygen supply). Long lasting: Stroke, brain injury, meningitis, heart failure, poisoning with sedative drugs (alcohol), epilepsy, hypo – or hyperglycemic coma, shock. If you don't know type of coma (hypo- or hyperglycemic), what will you do? Sugar or insulin?
Bleeding arterial – red, spouts x venous – dark, flows How to stop it? Arterial – press the artery in the affected part. Venous – apply pressure bandage. In both cases lift the affected part of body above the patient's heart. A healthy person can endure a loss of 10-15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties.
Fractures Symptoms: Pain, inability to move, deformity of the affected area. Fractures: closed (simple) x open What to do: Immobilize the affected part of the body and take off all Jewellery. Why?
Choking - Obstruction of the airway by a foreign object - Strangulation - Respiratory diseases – asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism etc. Symptoms: Gasping, impossibility to speak, clutching throat, Later the person's face turns blue (= cyanosis), unconsciousness
Choking – what to do? 1. Back blows: Bend the patient to put his/her head below his/her chest. Give five slaps between the patient's shoulder blades. 2. If it doesn't help, use the Heimlich Maneuver: Stand behind the patient, put your fist above his belly button and under his breastbone. Wrap your other hand around the fist. Pull inward and upward, using good force. Repeat five times.
Shock Failure of circulation with an inadequate distribution of oxygen leading to the “choking” of cells Causes: Heart failure, Obstruction in blood flow, Loss of volume circulation, Malfunction of peripheral circulation, Combination of all of these.
Shock - symptoms Symptoms: Low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat; cool, pale skin, confusion, weakness Other depend on the type of the shock What to do:
Plane crash Who screams most, usually needs your help least. Check all the place of the accident. Priority 1: Patients with severe bleeding, choking, unconscious who breathe spontaneously / after opening the airway Priority 2: Conscious patients unable to walk
Plane crash Priority 3: Conscious patients walking spontaneously ! We don't provide CPR – time is too precious for us!
First aid – Dr. ABC D anger – Your safety comes first. R esponse – Is the patient conscious? A irway – Is there a blockage in the throat? Open the airway with the “head tilt – chin lift” maneuver. B reathing – Check the breathing with free airway. C ompressions – If the patient isn't breathing (!attention: gasping!), start providing CPR CALL AN AMBULANCE: 155 (CZE) OR 911
CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation ADULTS 30 : 2 !!! - at least 5 cm deep - at least 100 times per minute CHILDREN 15 : 2, NEWBORNS 3 : 1 New american guidelines recommend the compression – only CPR for untrained rescuers. Why?
What do you do? You are waiting for the bus and you see a man fainting. The man doesn't respond at all, not even to a painful stimulation.