Presentation on theme: "Direct Observation Data Collection in Functional Behaviour Assessment Leading Behaviour Change Providing Behaviour Support to All Students."— Presentation transcript:
Direct Observation Data Collection in Functional Behaviour Assessment Leading Behaviour Change Providing Behaviour Support to All Students
Rationale If the task of teaching students with developmental and/or emotional and behavioural disorders is to change adaptive behaviours for the the better, then “an educational practice that does not include precise definition and reliable measurement of the behavioural change induced by the teacher’s methodology …is indefensible” Heward, 2003)
Direct Observation Data Collection Main points: –In FBA it is extremely important to observe students in the settings where the behaviour does and does not occur –Direct observations are needed to establish a concrete baseline of behavioural occurrence –Allows precise identification of antecedent and consequence conditions not revealed during indirect data analysis Lohrmann, S. (2004). Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities – UMDNJ-RWJMS
Direct Observation Data Collection Main points: –Observations should be distributed over time to sample different times of day and school routine –Select times when the behaviour is occurring and when the student is successful –Observations also provide information about conditions that work for the student, their strengths and preferences Lohrmann, S. (2004). Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities – UMDNJ-RWJMS
Direct Observation Data Collection When conducting direct observations consider: –Is target behaviour defined in operational terms? –When and how many observations are to be conducted? –Does behaviour occur very often or only occasionally? Lohrmann, S. (2004). Elizabeth M. Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities – UMDNJ-RWJMS
Choosing What to Measure: Defining the Target Behaviour Definitions are not labels. –The target behaviour must have a label but the observer is using the definition, not the label, to identify the target behaviour. –The definition should only include features that can be observed and measured. For example, it doesn’t include guesses at what the learner might be feeling.
Example Behaviour DefinitionsLabels Whenever Hannah is observed to refuse to move to a designated area when requested or appears to ignore a direction to begin or finish an activity, even when the teacher has repeated these instructions to her personally, then the behaviour is defined as non-compliance. Non Compliance If Mark is observed to hit another person with an open hand or closed fist such that the sound is audible and the person’s body is seen to move as a result of the blow, then the behaviour is defined as major aggression (Willis and LaVigna, 1995) Major Aggression If Damian is observed reading pages from a textbook, underlining sentences in the text, and completing math workbook exercises, then the behaviour is defined as on task. On Task
Choosing When and Where to Record If the target behaviour is likely to be observed only during specific times of the day or in specific classrooms but not in others, then it is possible to structure data collection more economically. These decisions should be made by the collaborative team during its first meeting Typical observation settings are: primary and secondary school classrooms school grounds and student recreation areas school gate
Direct Observation Data Recording Forms Event Recording Form Scatter Plot Form Classroom Scatter Plot Form Playground ABC Form
Choosing the Observer The observer might be a self-monitoring learner, the classroom teacher or teacher assistant, or an independent observer from outside the classroom or other setting. Typically, an independent observer would be a professional person such as a behaviour consultant, advisory visiting teacher, guidance officer or another teacher. The observer should be a FBA team member and able to recognise the defined behaviour.
Direct Data Collection Collating and summarising data –How often is the target behaviour occurring (frequency) –Any time of the day (or subject) worse or better? –Any pattern apparent (eg always in math, whenever s/he can’t do something, after play, first thing Monday morning)? –Use scatter plots and graphs to summarise
ScheduleMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday HomeroomIIIIINo data 5 MathIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIINo data16 EnglishIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII30 BreakIII horseplayNo dataI 4 ScienceIIII IIIIIIIII17 Social Sc.IIII sent to office IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII sent To office IIIIIIIIII30 ArtNo dataIIII IIIIII sent to office IIIII18 LunchIINo dataII horseplayINo data5 Computer I 1 PhysEd II2 Totals2532262817128 Functional Assessment Scatter Plot Student: James Grade: 7 Behaviour: Verbal threats; swearing Dates: 3/3-7/3/05
The Scatter Plot in Graph Form Note: For illustration purpose only. These data would ideally be expressed as percentages, with adjustments made for the number of each scheduled activities or classes actually occurring over the one-week data collection period.
AntecedentBehaviourConsequence Description of the activity and conditions present just prior to the behaviour Description of exactly what the student said and did Description of what students and teachers said and did in response to the behaviour Matthew entered class just as the bell rang. Mr. Johnson told him to hurry up. Matthew stopped and said hello at a peer's desk - Mr. Johnson told him to get in his seat. Mr. J. prompted students to get out their notebooks and he turned on the o/head. Matthew mumbled, "not this crap again" and put his feet upon the desk in from of him. Matthew slammed his notebook on the desk along with a loud sigh Mr. Johnson told him to put his feet down and not to start with his attitude. He told him to get out his book and straighten up. Mr. Johnson looked over at him and then began the lecture Example A-B-C Form Centre for Effective Collaboration and Practice