3MicrobiologyThe study of small living organisms called microbes, such as bacteria.Because infectious bacteria and viruses are easily transmitted from person to person, it is important that a professional cosmetologist, coming in contact with many people on a daily basis, understands particular aspects of microbiology.
4Bacteria One-celled microorganisms; germs; microbes. The study of bacteria is referred to as bacteriology.Germ – is a non-scientific name for small organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses that invade the body and cause disease.
5NONPATHOGENIC Harmless, non-disease producing bacteria Cause decay of refuse, improve fertility of soilCan be beneficial (ex. Yogurt has health enhancing bacteria.)Saprophytes – live on dead matter do not produce disease.70% of all bacteria are nonpathogenic
6PATHOGENIC Live everywhere Cause of infection and disease and some produce toxins.Spread easilyIn salon by using unsanitary styling implementsOr dirty hands and fingernailsHave distinct shapes that aid in their microscopic identification.
7Example of Pathogenic Bacterial Infection Wound Infection is caused by multiplying pathogenic bacteria which cause a reaction in the patient. Infection can be systemic, causing the patient to become ill, or local only affecting the wound bed and surrounding tissues.
8Pathogenic Bacteria Cocci Staphlococci Round - shaped cells Appear singularly or in groupsThere are 3 groups of CocciStaphlococciForms a bunch or clusters(like grapes)Pus – formingFound in boilsCause of staph infection
9Streptoccocci Diplococci Form in long chains Pus – forming Cause strep throat, bloodpoisoning, rheumatic fever and more.DiplococciRound and grow in pairsDiplo means two.Cause pneumonia
10Bacilli Spirilla Most common Bar or Rod – shaped Cause fever, tetanus, bacterialinfluenza, typhoid fever, tuberculosisand diphtheria.SpirillaSpiraled, corkscrew shapeCause syphilis and choleraTreponema pallidah(a stain of Spirilla) that causessyphilis
11ActivityTake the information you have just learned and do the exercise on the next page.
12Growth of BacteriaIt is very important to keep areas clean, dry and unfavorable for bacterial growth!Bacteria grow best in warm, damp conditions.Bacteria grow through a growth cycle that consists of two stages:ActiveInactive
13Active Bacteria Reproduce and Grow Rapidly Grow in dark,damp,dirty areas where a food source is available.Grow in size and divide creating two cells.As much as16 million cells can produce in as little as 12 hours
14Inactive Bacteria Condition unfavorable = No Growth Form spores not hurt by disinfection, cold or heat.Conditions good – they return to active stage.
15Movement of Bacteria Bacilli and Spirilla have flagella (cilia) Hair-like projections which extend from the sides of the cell.Act as propellers to help bacteria travel through air and liquids.Without this, movement of bacteria would be limited.
16VirusesSmaller than bacteria; cause familiar diseases: Cold, Measles, Hepatitis, HIVHBV – Human Hepatitis B; affects liver; may need vaccine; (PSW – personal service worker)HIV – AIDS; affects natural immunity; body fluids into bloodstream of non-infected.Cosmetologist are licensed to prevent the unnecessary spread of infectious diseases, such as HBV and HIV.
17External ParasitesPlants or animals that live on or obtain their nutrients from another organism.Ringworm (tinea capitis)Produced by parasitic plant or fungiContracted by improperly disinfected implements.
18Continue External Parasites Scabies, Itch Mite, Head LiceCaused by parasitic animalsCertain insects that cause contagious disease.Head LiceTransmitted directly from one person to another, or by contact with articles that have come in contact with an infested person.Symptoms: scratching, redness, or small bite marks on the scalp.Treat by using a pediculicide (lice-killing) shampoo.
19What do head lice look like? Lice ShampooLouseLice Eggs
20Responding Instead of Reacting Responding to a situation means to deal with the situation in a calm mature manner. Solve the problem.Reacting to a situation is when a person reacts first and thinks later. When we do this we may not say and do the right thing. We could end up making the situation worse.Have empathy and be a professional.Put yourself in the other persons shoes.
21InfectionCaused by pathogenic bacteria or viruses; entering the body and multiplying.Contagious (communicable) – Can transmit through touch or the air.Bloodborn pathogens – carried through blood or body fluids.Primary reason behind additional infection control procedures.
22Common means of spreading infection in a salon: Open soresUnclean hands and implementsCoughing or sneezingCommon use of drinking cups and towelsUse of same implements on infected areas and non-infected areasUnsanitary salon conditions
23Universal Precautions Wash HandsWear gloves whenever there is a possibility of coming in contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials (body fluids and tissues)Wear face masks and eye protection whenever there is a possibility of blood splashing into the rescuer's faceDispose of all contaminated sharp objects in an appropriate puncture-proof containerDispose of all contaminated personal protective equipment in an appropriate container marked for bio-hazardous waste
24Two Basic Classes of Infection Staph infection that is spreading Local Infection – Effects a small areaOften indicated by a pus-filled boil, pimple or inflamed area.General Infection (systemic) – Effects the whole bodyOccurs when the circulatory system carries bacteria and their toxins to all parts of the body.Asymptomatic – Carries disease – SHOWS NO SIGNS!! That’s why we have Universal Precautions!Ex. – A person can have HIV and show no visible signs.Local InfectionGeneral InfectionStaph infection that is spreading
25ImmunityYour body can destroy an infection that enters the body, if you are immune to that particular infection.Immunity gives your body the ammunition to fight disease.Doctors can test the white blood cell count as a way to determine the level of illness suffered by a patient.
26Natural Immunity Partially inherited, natural resistance to disease. Body produces white blood cells and antitoxins to fight diseaseSkin protects body from microbes1st line of defense!
27Passive Immunity Acquired Developed through the injection of antigens Stimulate the body’s immune responseEx: Polio vaccine
28Infection ControlInfection Control – Efforts to prevent the spread of disease and kill certain or all microbes.Efficacy = effectivenessEfficacy- “ability to produce results” or “effectiveness”Efficacy labels are on all disinfectants to inform the user about what the product is “effective in fighting against”.Understanding how to destroy microbes and prevent disease from spreading in the salon will help protect professional cosmetologists and their clients from the unnecessary spread of infectious diseases and maintain a safe, efficient working environment.
29Infection Control Pyramid Sterilization: the most effective level of infection control.Used on tools and implements that are used to puncture or invade the skin.Kills – all infectious diseases.Destroys or kills all microbes including bacterial spores.Sterilizers Sterilized Implements
30Bloodborn Pathogen Disinfection: Must use an EPA-registered broad spectrum disinfectant labeled as effective against HIV and HBV or tuberculocidal.Required for all tools and implements that have come in contact with blood or body fluids.Kills: HIV and HBV or Tuberculocidal
31Disinfection: chemical products used to destroy or kill bacteria and some viruses (except bacterial spores).Kills - Certain bacteriaOn nonporous surfaces, such as implements.Antiseptic: Product applied to the skin to reduce microbes.Clean surface on which to perform procedures and you have helped to prevent the future growth of microbes.Prevents - Growth of bacteriaEx. Numbing cream with antiseptic to apply before waxing.
32Sanitation: Clean and reduce microbes on the surface, but do not kill germs. Removes - Dirt and debris1st level of infection controlPrevents the growth of microbes.Does not kill bacteria (Removes, but does not kill)
36Disinfectant SafetyDisinfectants are powerful, professional-strength tools that can be hazardous if used incorrectly.Can be poisonous if ingested.Can cause serious skin and eye damage, especially in a concentrated form.
37Follow these guidelines when using Hospital Grade Disinfectants: Wear gloves and safety glasses when mixing chemicals with water.Always add disinfectant to water, not water to disinfectant.
38Use tongs, gloves, or a draining basket to remove implements from disinfectant. Keep disinfectants away from children.Never pour disinfectants on your hands. Can cause skin irritation and increase the chance of infection. Wash hands with soap and warm water and dry them thoroughly.
39Carefully weigh and measure all products to ensure that they perform at peak efficiency. Always keep disinfectants in a marked container.
40Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for mixing and using, and check the efficacy to make sure you are using the right disinfectant.Avoid overexposure. Disinfectants are chemicals, and overuse id detrimental to the environment.
41When using jars or containers to disinfect implements be sure to change the solution every day. Or, as often as needed to keep free from debris.Implements should be cleaned with soap and water before placing in solution.
42Type of tools that can be disinfected: Combs Brushes RollersScissors Tweezers Nail Clippers
43OSHA Department of Labor regulatory agency Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationRegulates and enforces safety and health standards to protect employees in the workplace.
44MSDS Key info on product ingredients. Material Safety Data Sheets. Information about hazardous ingredients, safe use and handling procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of harm and overexposure, flammability and data in case of a fire, proper disposal guidelines, and medical information should anyone have a reaction to the product.
45EPA Approves efficacy of products. Environmental Protection Agency The EPA licenses different types of disinfectants.The type used in the salon are hospital grade disinfectants that kill HBV, HIV and tuberculocidal.
47First AidAccidents and emergencies happen everywhere. Basic knowledge of first aid will prove invaluable.
48Bleeding and WoundsStep 1 – Place clean cloth or gauze and gloved hand over wound. Apply firm pressure for 5 minutes.Step 2 – Call (if bleeding is severe)Step 3 – Elevate injured arm or leg above level of victims heart if practical.Step 4 – When bleeding stops, secure cloth with a bandage – Don’t lift cloth to see if bleeding stopped. Make sure that bandage is not too tight.
49Chemical BurnsRinse away all traces of chemicals while moving away any contaminated clothing.Cover burn loosely with clean, dry cloth.Refer person to medical personnel.
50Heat or Electrical Burn If skin is not broken, immerse in cool water or gently apply cool compress.Do NOT break a blister if one forms. Do NOT apply ointments or creams.If skin is broken or if burn is severe:Call 9-1-1Do NOT cleanCover burn
511st Degree Burns First Degree Symptom is redness Burn only effects the surface, the epidermis layer of the skin.Apply ice or cold water.
522nd Degree Burns Second Degree Symptom is redness and watery blisters. Burn effects the two upper most layers of the skin (epidermis and dermis).Apply ice or cold water and may refer to a physician.
533rd Degree Burns Third Degree Symptom involves deeper structures of flesh and possible charring of tissue.Burn effects all 3 main layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous) and may even reach the muscle.Refer to a physician immediately!
55ChokingStep 1 – Determine if victim can talk or cough. If no, have someone call 9-1-1, while you do abdominal thrusts.Step 2 – Stand behind victim; wrap arms around his/her stomach.Step 3 – Make thumbless fist with one hand and place that fist just above navel and well below the ribs with thumb and forefinger side toward the victim.Step 4 – Perform upward thrust by grasping fist with other hand and pulling it quickly toward you; repeat if necessary.
58Fainting Step 1 – lay victim down on back – allow plenty of fresh air. Step 2 – Reassure victim and apply cold compress to faceStep 3 – If victim vomits, roll onto side, keep windpipe clear.Call if victim does not regain consciousness.
59Chemical Eye InjuryHold eyelids apart – flush eyeball with luke warm water for 15 – 30 minutes; don’t let runoff flow into the other eye.Place gauze pad or cloth over both eyes and secure with bandage.Get to an eye specialist or emergency room immediately.
60Cut, Scratch or Embedded Object in Eye Place gauze pad or cloth over both eyes and secure with a bandage.Do NOT try to remove an embedded object!Get to an eye specialist or emergency room immediately.