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Innovation Economics Class 6. International Trade Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovation Economics Class 6. International Trade Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovation Economics Class 6

2 International Trade Theory

3  What is international trade? Exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods (and services) across national borders Exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods (and services) across national borders  Classical trade theories: explain national economy conditions--country advantages--that enable such exchange to happen explain national economy conditions--country advantages--that enable such exchange to happen  New trade theories: explain links among natural country advantages, government action, and industry characteristics that enable such exchange to happen explain links among natural country advantages, government action, and industry characteristics that enable such exchange to happen  Implications for International Business

4 Classical Trade Theories  Mercantilism (pre-16th century) Takes an us-versus-them view of trade Takes an us-versus-them view of trade Other country’s gain is our country’s loss Other country’s gain is our country’s loss  Free Trade theories Absolute Advantage (Adam Smith, 1776) Absolute Advantage (Adam Smith, 1776) Comparative Advantage (David Ricardo, 1817) Comparative Advantage (David Ricardo, 1817) Specialization of production and free flow of goods benefit all trading partners’ economies Specialization of production and free flow of goods benefit all trading partners’ economies  Free Trade refined Factor-proportions (Heckscher-Ohlin, 1919) Factor-proportions (Heckscher-Ohlin, 1919) International product life cycle (Ray Vernon, 1966) International product life cycle (Ray Vernon, 1966)

5 The New Trade Theory  As output expands with specialization, an industry’s ability to realize economies of scale increases and unit costs decrease  Because of scale economies, world demand supports only a few firms in such industries (e.g., commercial aircraft, automobiles)  Countries that had an early entrant to such an industry have an advantage: Fist-mover advantage Fist-mover advantage Barrier to entry Barrier to entry

6 New Trade Theory  Global Strategic Rivalry Firms gain competitive advantage trough: intellectual property, R&D, economies of scale and scope, experience Firms gain competitive advantage trough: intellectual property, R&D, economies of scale and scope, experience  National Competitive Advantage (Porter, 1990)

7 Absolute Advantage  Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations, 1776  Mercantilism weakens country in long run; enriches only a few  A country Should specialize in production of and export products for which it has absolute advantage; import other products Should specialize in production of and export products for which it has absolute advantage; import other products Has absolute advantage when it is more productive than another country in producing a particular product Has absolute advantage when it is more productive than another country in producing a particular product Rice Cocoa G G' K K' G: Ghana K: S. Korea

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9 Comparative Advantage  David Ricardo: Principles of Political Economy, 1817  Country should specialize in the production of those goods in which it is relatively more productive... even if it has absolute advantage in all goods it produces  Absolute Advantage is a special case of Comparative Advantage Rice Cocoa G K K' G' G: Ghana K: S. Korea

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11 Heckscher (1919)-Ohlin (1933)  Differences in factor endowments not on differences in productivity determine patterns of trade  Absolute amounts of factor endowments matter  Leontief paradox: US has relatively more abundant capital yet imports goods more capital intensive than those it exports US has relatively more abundant capital yet imports goods more capital intensive than those it exports Explanation(?): Explanation(?): US has special advantage on producing new products made with innovative technologies US has special advantage on producing new products made with innovative technologies These may be less capital intensive till they reach mass- production state These may be less capital intensive till they reach mass- production state

12 Theory of Relative Factor Endowments (Heckscher-Ohlin)  Factor endowments vary among countries  Products differ according to the types of factors that they need as inputs  A country has a comparative advantage in producing products that intensively use factors of production (resources) it has in abundance  Factors of production: labor, capital, land, human resources, technology

13 International Product Life-Cycle (Vernon)  Firms kept production close to their market initially Aid decisions; minimize risk of new product introductions Aid decisions; minimize risk of new product introductions Demand not based on price; low product cost not an issue Demand not based on price; low product cost not an issue  Limited initial demand in other advanced countries initially Exports more attractive than overseas production Exports more attractive than overseas production  When demand increases in advanced countries, production follows  With demand expansion in secondary markets Product becomes standardized Product becomes standardized production moves to low production cost areas production moves to low production cost areas Product now imported to US and to advanced countries Product now imported to US and to advanced countries

14 Classic Theory Conclusion  Free Trade expands the world “pie” for goods/services Theory Limitations:  Simple world (two countries, two products)  no transportation costs  no price differences in resources  resources immobile across countries  constant returns to scale  each country has a fixed stock of resources and no efficiency gains in resource use from trade  full employment

15 New Trade Theories  Increasing returns of specialization due to economies of scale (unit costs of production decrease)  First mover advantages (economies of scale such that barrier to entry crated for second or third company)  Luck... first mover may be simply lucky.  Government intervention: strategic trade policy

16 National Competitive Advantage (Porter, 1990)  Factor endowments land, labor, capital, workforce, infrastructure (some factors can be created...) land, labor, capital, workforce, infrastructure (some factors can be created...)  Demand conditions large, sophisticated domestic consumer base: offers an innovation friendly environment and a testing ground large, sophisticated domestic consumer base: offers an innovation friendly environment and a testing ground  Related and supporting industries local suppliers cluster around producers and add to innovation local suppliers cluster around producers and add to innovation  Firm strategy, structure, rivalry competition good, national governments can create conditions which facilitate and nurture such conditions competition good, national governments can create conditions which facilitate and nurture such conditions

17 Porter’s Diamond

18 “So What” for business?  First mover implications  Location Implications  Foreign Investment Decisions  Government Policy implications

19 New Growth Theory New growth theory emphasizes the role of technology rather than capital in the growth process. New growth theory emphasizes the role of technology rather than capital in the growth process.

20 Technology Technology is the result of investment in creating technology (research and development). Technology is the result of investment in creating technology (research and development). Growth theory separates investment in capital from investment in technology. Growth theory separates investment in capital from investment in technology. Increases in technology are not as directly linked to investment as is capital. Increases in technology are not as directly linked to investment as is capital.

21 Technology Increases in technology often have enormous positive spillover effects. Increases in technology often have enormous positive spillover effects. Positive externalities – positive effects on others not taken into account by the decision maker. Positive externalities – positive effects on others not taken into account by the decision maker. Technological advances in one sector of the economy lead to advances in completely different unrelated sectors. Technological advances in one sector of the economy lead to advances in completely different unrelated sectors.

22 Technology Some basic research is protected by patents. Some basic research is protected by patents. Patents – legal ownership of a technological innovation that gives the owner of the patent sole rights to its use and distribution for a limited time. Patents – legal ownership of a technological innovation that gives the owner of the patent sole rights to its use and distribution for a limited time.

23 Technology Once people have seen the new technology, they figure out a sufficiently different way to achieving the same end to avoid the patent. Once people have seen the new technology, they figure out a sufficiently different way to achieving the same end to avoid the patent.

24 Learning by Doing New growth theory also highlights learning by doing. New growth theory also highlights learning by doing. Learning by doing – improving the methods of production through experience. Learning by doing – improving the methods of production through experience. By increasing the productivity of workers, learning by doing also overcomes the law of diminishing marginal productivity. By increasing the productivity of workers, learning by doing also overcomes the law of diminishing marginal productivity.

25 Increasing Returns to Scale Production function with increasing returns Output All inputs

26 Technological Lock-In Technological lock-in occurs when old technologies become entrenched in the market. Technological lock-in occurs when old technologies become entrenched in the market. They become locked into new products despite the fact that more efficient technologies are available. They become locked into new products despite the fact that more efficient technologies are available.

27 Technological Lock-In One reason for technological lock-in is network externalities. One reason for technological lock-in is network externalities. Network externalities – an externality in which the use of a good by one individual makes that technology more valuable to other people. Network externalities – an externality in which the use of a good by one individual makes that technology more valuable to other people.

28 Technological Lock-In Switching from a technology exhibiting network externalities to a superior technology is expensive and sometimes nearly impossible. Switching from a technology exhibiting network externalities to a superior technology is expensive and sometimes nearly impossible.


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