Transport Canada Quebec Region Civil AviationAviation civile SophieLanoix System Safety Specialist System Safety 700Leigh Capreol DorvalQC H4Y 1G7 Tel.: 514 633-2967Fax: 514 633-3705 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org Transports Canada Région du Québec
Flying: Risk Factors and Decision Making £Personal Minimums Checklist £Risk factors P ilot A ircraft en V ironment E xternal pressures
Why? £Humans make mistakes. £70-85% of all aircraft accidents and incidents are due to human factors. Most accidents and incidents occur because the pilot failed to consider one or more critical factors during the pre- flight planning phase.
Those Most Likely to be Involved in an Accident: £are between 35 and 39 years of age; £have between 100 and 500 flight hours; £are on a personal flight; £are under visual flight rules (VFR). AND YOU???
Phase of Flight Exposure vs. Accidents Percentage of Exposure Time (per flight) Percentage of Accidents (per phase of flight) 22% 16% Takeoff and climb 17% 60% Cruise
NASA Survey Percentage of respondents who said: “Our fist mistake was in the…” 10% 27% 63% Pre-flight planning phase Start up, taxi, pre-takeoff phases All other phases of flight Accidents where time factor was reported
Personal Minimums Checklist Your personal minimum checklist ensures that you recognize and manage all risk factors that can influence your flight.
Personal Minimums Checklist £The decision to carry out a flight is based on the pilot’s personal and safety criteria, which are adapted to the situation. £The regulations are minimums and do not account for the differences between pilots.
Personal Minimums Checklist £Identify risk factors for each flight. £Determine methods for controlling each of the risk factors.
Personal Minimums Checklist £Not all items will apply to every flight; no checklist can cover every situation. £Remember that your checklist should be updated periodically.
Risk Factors There are 4 categories of risk factors: Pilot Aircraft External Pressures enVironment
Pilot Examples of questions to ask yourself: £How current am I? £Am I well rested? £Am I familiar with the type of airspace I will be flying in? £Do I have experience with the terrain?
Training, Knowledge and Experience A lack of: £Training and knowledge £Experience £Recency and proficiency will increase: £Workload £Reaction time £Errors CARs 401.05 and 421.05
Procedures Do you know the most up- to-date operational procedures and the current regulations?
Beware of Overconfidence Overconfidence in a pilot occurs when they are lulled into a sense of self-satisfaction accompanied by: £a failure to recognize changes in their situation; or £a failure to assess the actual dangers or deficiencies in their situation.
Avoiding Overconfidence £Do thorough pre-flight planning. £Anticipate and continually assess the situation. £Stay busy: pre-plan, file a PIREP, think about the “What ifs...” £Always have an escape route (an alternate plan of action or a plan “B”).
Fatigue A fatigued pilot: £is susceptible to visual and kinaesthetic illusions and has a reduced field of vision; £may forget or ignore checks and procedures; £is easily distracted and fixates on details; £is easily preoccupied; £has limited situational awareness; £exhibits poor communication skills; £is likely to doze off.
Preventing Fatigue £Get 8 hours of sleep if possible. £If you are unable to fall asleep in 30 minutes, get up. £Take a power nap, if possible (45 minutes max.). £Stay in good physical condition (aerobic) and eat sensibly. £Avoid using artificial stimulants, sleep aids, alcohol and tobacco. £Drink enough water.
Preventing In-Flight Fatigue If you are fatigued while flying: £ventilate the cockpit; £engage in constructive conversation; £file a PIREP with ATS; £review emergency procedures; £think about the “What ifs ?” and your plan “B”; £move around.
Fitness of Flight Crew Members (CAR 602.02) No operator of an aircraft shall require any person to act as a flight crew member and no person shall act as a flight crew member, if either the person or the operator has any reason to believe, having regard to the circumstances of the particular flight to be undertaken, that the person (a) is suffering or is likely to suffer from fatigue; or (b) is otherwise unfit to perform properly the person's duties as a flight crew member.
Blood Sugar Level Simple Carbohydrates Danger Zone Complex Carbohydrates Time High Low Diet
Alcohol: £is a sedative; £decreases the brain’s ability to use oxygen; £affects our senses; £affects our judgement; £distorts our perception. The effects of alcohol are increased in altitude because the partial pressure of oxygen is decreased.
Alcohol vs. Senses £Reduction in visual and auditory sharpness. £Susceptibility to visual illusions. £Susceptibility to vestibular illusions (internal ear). £Loss of balance.
Alcohol vs. Judgment Alcohol impairs our judgment by: £increasing our reaction time; £clouding our memory; £making us accept a higher level of risk than normal; £making us underestimate the risks involved.
Alcohol vs. Judgment The most serious effect of alcohol is that we are unable to judge our own impairment.
Alcohol vs. Metabolism £Alcohol is a diuretic…a hangover is the result of dehydration. £Alcohol disrupts sleep patterns, causing fatigue. £Alcohol that accumulates in the inner ear remains longer than the alcohol that accumulates in the rest of the body.
Alcohol vs. Metabolism Even after alcohol is completely eliminated from the body, the effects can last for 48 to 72 hours after the last drink. CAR 602.03
Illness and Medication £Medication covers up symptoms, but does not cure the underlying problem. £Always consult a Civil Aviation Medical Examiner. £Educate yourself on the side effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications. £Before flying, wait double the recommended amount of time between doses.
Stress vs. Performance Peak Performance Low performance Medium Performance High Performance Danger Low Stress Medium Stress High Stress
Stress Management £Identify, recognize and manage stressors. £Get sufficient rest, proper nutrition and exercise. £Check your attitude, sense of humour and emotional state.
Stress Management Be pro-active towards stressors: £Know all the elements… £Keep the big picture in mind... what is the worst-case scenario? £Communicate your problems to people who can help.
Three Human Factors Books from Transport Canada 1 800 305-2059 http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/communications/publications.htm
Coffee Break The three most useless things to a pilot: The altitude above you, the runway behind you, and a tenth of a second ago.
Aircraft Examples of questions to ask yourself: £Is the aircraft adequately equipped? £Does the aircraft have any maintenance problems? £What are the aircraft performances? £What is the aircraft’s fuel consumption?
Airworthiness Make sure your aircraft is airworthy: £Check all aircraft documents. £Do a complete walk-around. £Make sure weight and balance is within the limits.
Time in Your Tanks... £Calculate the amount of fuel you burn from engine start up to engine shut down, plus required reserves. £Do not rely on a forecasted tailwind; anticipate headwinds. £Be conscientious about your “how- goes-it” checkpoints!!
CAR 602.88 Every aircraft shall carry an amount of fuel that is sufficient to provide for: £taxiing and foreseeable delays prior to takeoff; £meteorological conditions; £foreseeable air traffic routings and traffic delays;
CAR 602.88 £landing at a suitable aerodrome in the event of loss of cabin pressurization or, in the case of a multi-engined aircraft, failure of any engine, at the most critical point during the flight; and £any other foreseeable conditions that could delay the landing of the aircraft. £Plus a reserve supply of at least: £day VFR: 30 min £night VFR: 45 min
Competency and Experience on Type Are you up-to-date on the aircraft you intend to fly? How is your: £flying ability (hands and feet); £knowledge of the aircraft; £knowledge of the emergency procedures. Keep yourself current on aircraft systems, their limits and operational procedures
Practical Knowledge Static simulation is a cheap and effective means of familiarizing or re- familiarizing yourself with the aircraft's controls, instruments, avionics and checklist procedures.
Practical Knowledge £Take the time to practice flight manoeuvres. £An occasional or, even better, annual flight with an instructor is invaluable. £Develop your automatism!
Aircraft Performance Performances and fuel consumption indicated in the pilot operating handbook (POH) have been calculated in ideal circumstances: £a new aircraft; £an experienced test pilot; £maximum performances; £optimal weather conditions.
Aircraft Performance Be conservative! Add a percentage to your performance calculations: £take-off distance; £obstacle clearance and climb; £landing distance. When flight planning, ensure that you are using the authorized documentation for your individual aircraft
Aircraft Equipment £Communication/Navigation: £required for the airspace you will be flying in; £familiarity with the equipment. £Clothing and survival equipment: £appropriate for the season and the area.
Maintenance £Are you maintaining your aircraft yourself? £Is your mechanic an aircraft maintenance engineer (AME)? £Are all the parts approved for aviation (no bogus parts)?
Avionics £Avionics technology is changing rapidly. £Be aware that GPS receivers have different control functions, programming procedures and data displays. The time to learn how to operate the system is when you are on the ground, not in the air!!
Environment Examples of questions to ask yourself: £What will the weather be at destination? £Will it be a day flight or a night flight? £What terrain is involved? £Is the runway in good condition?
Airport Conditions £Prepare your approach as part of your pre- flight planning, check NOTAMs. £If you are unfamiliar with the airport, look at the diagram in the CFS or the CAP plate. £Call ahead, airport/runway conditions vary based on the weather and season. £Follow special procedures set out in the CFS. Circuit Noise
Airspace £Know the area radio frequencies and monitor them. £Familiarize yourself with transition routes and reporting points. £Look for, and monitor, other aircraft in the area.
Weather £Check METARs, TAFs, FDs and GFAs. £Assess any meteorological hazards such as: £reduced visibility, thunderstorms, wind shear, icing, low ceilings etc. £Familiarize yourself with local weather trends.
Weather £Determine how the weather will be affecting your flight route and duration. £Avoid bad weather conditions.
Terrain £Be familiar with obstacles and terrain. £Charts, CFS: £all the necessary information; £up-to-date; £organized.
External Pressures Examples of questions to ask yourself: £What outside forces are pushing me? £Why am I making this trip? £Am I pressed for time? £What are the real consequences to my decisions?
Time Pressure *The more you feel pressed for time, *the more you do things hastily, *the higher your chances of making a mistake.
Time Pressure Management Do not put yourself under unnecessary time pressure: £Allow sufficient time for unforeseen delays. £Plan alternate means of travel to allow for bad weather.
Time Pressure Management Do not rush: £Use your checklist and stick to the procedures. £If you are interrupted, go three steps back on the checklist or start at the beginning!
Managing External Pressures £Beware of the effects of the “I have to get there no matter what” syndrome. £Always have a plan “B”; £What is your way out? £Set limits (fuel, weather, etc.) at which you will turn around or divert. Do not exceed your limits—Stick to them!!! Exagerated feeling of emergency Exaggerated feeling of emergency
Peer and Passenger Pressures £Do not ignore or minimize passenger concerns before a flight. £Give your passengers a thorough pre- flight briefing. £Make use of all resources: ask passengers to watch for traffic, read maps and other publications.
Peer and Passenger Pressures Make decisions based on facts and your limitations. Do not get yourself into situations that you did not plan. Beware of last minute, unplanned changes! Do not take unnecessary risks under pressure!!!
Personal Minimums Checklist You need to commit to using the checklist. Make it a part of your pre-flight routine and have the discipline to follow it through!!