2Learning ObjectivesDescribe and list factors that affect oxygenation and tissue perfusion.2. Explain common physical assessment proceduresused to evaluate respiratory health of patientsacross the lifespan.3. Identify priority respiratory assessment findings.Differentiate normal respiratory assessment fromabnormal findings.
3Learning Objectives (cont’d. ) 5 Learning Objectives (cont’d.) 5. Describe the integral relationship between perfusion and oxygenation Explain the role and limitations associated with pulse oximetry assessment Explain and utilize vital signs and peripheral vascular assessment techniques and findings to assess perfusion.
4Perfusion – A continuous supply of oxygenated blood to every cell in the body through the body’s vessels. (Pumped to all parts).
5Circulatory system: a closed system Basically a closed system….
7Perfusion: affected by pump failure, decreased volume, arterial obstruction Arterial walls: Blood pressure is controlled by the body with vasoconstrictors that increase pressure and with vasodilators that reduce pressure.Perfusion – affected by pump failure, decreased volume, arterial obstructionArterial walls – vasoconstrict and vasodilate to help regulate BP
8Pulse sites tell us that blood is reaching distant sites Nine pulse sites tell us that heart-pumped blood is reaching peripheral areas of the body
9What do you feel/palpate/see to assess tissue perfusion? Peripheral pulses and capillary refillPeripheral pulses and capillary refill
12Swollen tongue is a ventilation (airway) issue Swollen tongue – ventilation – airway issue
13Head trauma think decreased ventilation and possible airway swelling Head Trauma: potential for decreased ventilation and possible obstruction, and or swelling of the airway
14Open System: an amputation is perfusion issue Open system perfusion issue
15No oxygen to heart muscle itself – it doesn’t get perfused and dies then decreased pump action and perfusion to the rest of the bodyNo oxygen to heart muscle– no perfusion, dying muscle, and reduced pump action which…
16results in decreased perfusion to the rest of the body
21Respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, may decrease diffusion
22Q. Our body’s compensatory mechanisms, which react in the presence of infection, include which of the following in a patient with a bilateral lung infection? a. Decreased blood pressure b. Increased blood pressure c. Increased respiratory and heart rate d. Decreased respiratory and heart rate
27Q. What is the first thing you do when someone has difficulty breathing? a. Have them raise their feet b. Sit them up in a high upright position c. Give them water to drink d. Take their blood pressure