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Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 10 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.

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1 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 10 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

2 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Structure and Function Functions of the cardiovascular system –Transports nutrients and oxygen to the body –Transports waste products from the cells to the kidneys for excretion –Distributes hormones and antibodies throughout the body –Helps control body temperature and maintain electrolyte balance

3 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Heart Two-sided, double pump Weighs less than a pound Little bigger than a fist Located between the lungs in the thoracic cavity Positioned partially to the left of the sternum

4 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 10-2A Structures of the Heart

5 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Tissue Layers of the Heart Endocardium –Smooth layer of cells lining the inside of the heart and forming the valves Myocardium –The thickest layer, consisting of muscle tissue Pericardium –Double membrane that covers the outside of the heart, providing lubrication between the heart and surrounding structures to prevent tissue damage

6 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Blood Vessels Arteries –Carry blood away from the heart Veins –Carry blood back to the heart Capillaries –Microscopic vessels that carry blood between the arterial and venous vessels

7 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 10-4 Blood Vessels

8 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Assessment Techniques Measuring pulse and blood pressure Listening to heart sounds Determining cardiac output Measuring muscle activity with electrocardiography Inserting a cardiac catheter Using echocardiography

9 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of the Cardiovascular System Aneurysm –An area of a blood vessel that bulges because of a weakness in the wall Atherosclerosis –A narrowing of blood vessels caused by deposits of fatty material containing calcium and cholesterol Cardiac arrhythmia –A disturbance of the heart’s rhythm caused by a defect in the heart’s pacemaker cells or by damage to heart tissue

10 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of the Cardiovascular System (continued) Cardiovascular disease –A general term for the combined effects of arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, and related conditions called coronary artery disease Congenital heart disease –A group of disorders that affect about 25,000 newborns each year in the united states Congestive heart failure –The inability of the heart to pump blood adequately to meet the body’s needs

11 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of the Cardiovascular System (continued) Hypertension –High blood pressure Myocardial infarction –Known as a heart attack Phlebitis –An inflammation of a vein, often with formation of a clot

12 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Disorders of the Cardiovascular System (continued) Rheumatic heart disease –A condition in which the heart muscle and valves are damaged by a recurrent bacterial infection that usually begins in the throat Varicose veins –A condition in which veins become enlarged and ineffective

13 Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Issues and Innovations Heart replacement – First artificial heart, Jarvik-7 – AbioCor self-contained artificial heart – Heart transplants Cholesterol controversy – LDL vs. HDL – Ways to avoid high cholesterol


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