Presentation on theme: "Healthy Nutrition Guidelines #1- Macronutrients Property of HHPR Department-PSU."— Presentation transcript:
Healthy Nutrition Guidelines #1- Macronutrients Property of HHPR Department-PSU
Body Composition Review ?’s What is a healthy % fat range for college age women? Ditto for men?? Are genetics or lifestyle habits more influential in determining % fat??? Identify the 2 basic lifestyle factors you control that determine whether you will gain, lose or maintain body weight???? Chapter 82
Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Essential nutrients = substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet E needs MacronutrientsMicronutrients –Proteins-Vitamins –Carbohydrates-Minerals –Fats-Water
Energy (E) from Food Kilocalorie or Kcal= a measure of E content Three classes of macronutrients our essential nutrients supply ALL your energy (E) or Kcals –Carbohydrates (CHO) –Fats –Proteins
Sources of Energy in the Diet “4-7-9 Rule” One gram of each has how many Kcals?
Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates Simple CHO or “simple sugars” (less healthy) –Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to many other foods –Include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose Complex CHO or “starches” (healthier) –Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers –Includes most types of dietary fiber
Carbohydrates (CHO) The Ideal Source of Energy A#1 primary supply energy to ALL body cells. Brain & nervous system use only CHO During high-intensity “anaerobic” exercise our muscles get most of their E from CHO CHO is stored as: –Muscle glycogen, blood & liver glucose V limited E source… 1900 KCALS average person Dr. Atkin’s “ extremely low CHO/ high protein” diet???
Refined Carbohydrates vs Whole Grains Whole grains are higher in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains take longer to digest –Make people feel full sooner –Cause a slower rise in glucose levels Choose foods that have “whole grain” as the first item on the ingredient list on the food label… exs- –Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole-grain corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc.
Glycemic Index Glycemic index = a measure of how the ingestion of CHO affects blood glucose levels Consumption of CHO causes insulin and glucose levels in the blood to rise and fall High glycemic index foods cause quick and dramatic changes in glucose levels High glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and CHD
Recommended Carbohydrate Intake Acceptable Range = 45–65% of total daily calories as CHO… the foundation! CHO Loading for aerobic athletes (70%) Adequate daily intake of CHO = 130+ grams Limit intake of added “simple” sugars –Experts 10-25% or less of total daily calories –Limit simple to <1/3 of total CHO intake!
Fats—Essential in Limited Healthy Amounts Body fat stores supply E Insulates the body Supports and cushions organs Absorbs fat-soluble vitamins Add flavor/taste and texture to foods Excess causes OBESITY * Why a quality CHO - moderate protein - low fat diet is desirable!
Types and Sources of Fats Monounsaturated fats or “monos” –Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils –Healthy… help reduce atheroslerosis & CHD –Liquid at room temperature Polyunsaturated fats or “polys” –Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils –Healthy… if NOT hydrogenated! –Also liquid at room temperature
Types and Sources of Fats Saturated Fats –Found primarily in ANIMAL foods –Misconception- also found in vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils –Exs. - Palm and coconut oils –Usually SOLID at room temperature Trans Fatty Acids or Hydrogenated Fats * Chemically altered monos or polys that may be much much worse than saturated fats! * Read food labels and AVOID totally!!!
Polyunsaturated Fats Polyunsaturated Fats Two key forms: –Omega-3 fatty acids Found primarily in fish… cold vs warm H2O ? Supplements –Omega-6 fatty acids Found primarily in certain vegetable oils Exs.- corn, soybean, and cottonseed oils ? Tuna vs good ‘ol SEK catfish?
Comparison of Dietary Fats
Avoiding Trans Fatty Acids AKA “Hydrogenated Fats” Read food labels and … Avoid foods with “vegetable shortening” or “partially hydrogenated” or TRANS fats “Cholesterol Free,” “Low Saturated,” “Low Cholesterol,” may not be low in hydrogenated fats Cook with Canola or Olive oil Avoid deep fried foods … duhhh
Saturated and Trans Fats: Comparing Butter and Margarine SOURCE: Food an Drug Administration
Fats and Health Fats affect blood cholesterol levels –LDL= “bad” or “lousy/lethal” cholesterol –HDL= “good” or “healthy” cholesterol –Saturated and trans fats raise LDL –Trans fats also lower HDL –Unsaturated fats lower LDL * Fats also affect triglyceride levels, inflammation, heart rhythm, blood pressure, and cancer risk
Recommended Fat Intake Acceptable Range = 20–35% of total daily calories as fat… AHA suggests… –Monos 10% –Polys 10% < Saturated/Trans 10% *** Daily Fat Gram Speed Limits*** -Women g/day -Men g/day
Fats in Fast Foods & Snack Foods Snack Food Line-up –No label peeking –Line up by most fat to least fat gms –Read labels and line up correctly Chip Burning Demo? Fast Food Restaurant “Guides to Nutritious Dining” 24
Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure Protein = compound made of amino acids Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones Used primarily during rest to “repair” or rebuild vs supplying E during exercise
Complete and Incomplete Proteins Complete “essential” proteins = foods that supply all the essential amino acids –Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy Incomplete “non-essential” proteins = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids –Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts –Vegetarians???
Recommended Protein Intake Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range = 10–35% of total daily Kcals Adequate daily intake of protein = 0.8 to 1.0 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight (BW / 2= ???g) Needs vary by age & activity level One fist- 2 fist- 3 fist- 4…. ?
Summary: Healthy Macronutrient Ranges Carbohydrate = 45–65% daily Kcals Fat = 20–35% of total daily Kcals Protein = 10–35% of total daily Kcals We Have Found the Enemy and s/he is US! POGO
Nutritional Planning: Choosing & Shopping for Healthier Foods Read Food labels - Avoid partially hydrogenated / trans fats - Limit high fructose corn syrup / simple sugars - Obtain 2 gms fiber per 100 Kcals - The shorter the ingredient list the better Count fat grams - (W / M 70-80) Know Fat Percent vs Percent Daily Values
Food Labels Read labels to learn more about your food choices. Calculate % fat ? Know DV’s ? Know fat grams? Chip demo?
Attendance ???’s #1- How many Kcals are there in one gram of alcohol? Fat? (4-7-9 rule) #2- The Macronutrients supply all of the ____ needed to produce E? #3- T or F Most Americans need to take protein supplements! Chapter 831
2010 Dietary Guidelines The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are published by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Guidelines provide authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for Federal food and nutrition education programs.Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)Department of Agriculture (USDA) * For information on the development of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, check on Chapter 832
FINAL STUDY QUESTIONS 1- All of the calories and energy (E) in the diet are supplied by the _____________? 2- Foods full of simple sugars & causing an immediate spike in blood sugar are called ________ glycemic index foods. 3- Healthy fats include monos & _______ whereas unhealthy fats are _____&_____. 4- Your daily” fat gram speed limit” is _____gms (W) and ______gms (M) 5- Fats or oils one should include in their diet include _________ & __________? Chapter 833
Web Sites Fats 101- American Heart Association- y/FatsAndOils/Fats- Oils_UCM_001084_SubHomePage.jsp y/FatsAndOils/Fats- Oils_UCM_001084_SubHomePage.jsp Calorie Counters- Fast Food Chains & Restaurant Calorie Counter- cat=21 cat=21