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Healthy Nutrition Guidelines

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Presentation on theme: "Healthy Nutrition Guidelines"— Presentation transcript:

1 Healthy Nutrition Guidelines
#1- Macronutrients Property of HHPR Department-PSU

2 Body Composition Review ?’s
What is a healthy % fat range for college age women? Ditto for men?? Are genetics or lifestyle habits more influential in determining % fat??? Identify the 2 basic lifestyle factors you control that determine whether you will gain, lose or maintain body weight???? Chapter 8

3 Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet
Essential nutrients = substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet E needs Macronutrients Micronutrients Proteins -Vitamins Carbohydrates -Minerals Fats -Water

4 Energy (E) from Food Kilocalorie or Kcal= a measure of E content
Three classes of macronutrients our essential nutrients supply ALL your energy (E) or Kcals Carbohydrates (CHO) Fats Proteins Kcals or E in foods can be measured by burning the food and measuring the heat generated. Typically listed in British Thermal Units… which of the 3 macronutrients above will generate the most heat?

5 Sources of Energy in the Diet “4-7-9 Rule” One gram of each has how many Kcals?
The “4-7-9 Rule” could be called the “ Rule” for the protein-CHO-fat-alcohol caloric/Kcal content of the macronutrients.

6 Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates
Simple CHO or “simple sugars” (less healthy) Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to many other foods Include sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose Complex CHO or “starches” (healthier) Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers Includes most types of dietary fiber It is suggested that 2/3 or more of our CHO’s come from Complex Cho.

7 Carbohydrates (CHO) The Ideal Source of Energy
A#1 primary supply energy to ALL body cells. Brain & nervous system use only CHO During high-intensity “anaerobic” exercise our muscles get most of their E from CHO CHO is stored as: Muscle glycogen, blood & liver glucose V limited E source… 1900 KCALS average person Dr. Atkin’s “ extremely low CHO/ high protein” diet??? Atkin’s diet does NOT work physiologically! QUALITY Healthy Complex CHO should be the foundation of a healthy diet.

8 Refined Carbohydrates vs Whole Grains
Whole grains are higher in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains take longer to digest Make people feel full sooner Cause a slower rise in glucose levels Choose foods that have “whole grain” as the first item on the ingredient list on the food label… exs- Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole-grain corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc. The sooner one feels full or “satiated” the less they will consume!

9 Glycemic Index Glycemic index = a measure of how the ingestion of CHO affects blood glucose levels Consumption of CHO causes insulin and glucose levels in the blood to rise and fall High glycemic index foods cause quick and dramatic changes in glucose levels  High glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and CHD 

10 Glycemic Index What are examples of high glycemic foods that would spike blood sugar levels? Simple CHO “sugary” foods that are digested quickly cause the rapid changes in blood glucose levels.

11 Recommended Carbohydrate Intake
Acceptable Range = 45–65% of total daily calories as CHO… the foundation! CHO Loading for aerobic athletes (70%) Adequate daily intake of CHO = 130+ grams Limit intake of added “simple” sugars Experts 10-25% or less of total daily calories Limit simple to <1/3 of total CHO intake! Explain CHO loading technique. Basically one increases their quality CHO intake for 2-3 days prior to an aerobic competition.

12 Fats—Essential in Limited Healthy Amounts
Body fat stores supply E Insulates the body Supports and cushions organs Absorbs fat-soluble vitamins Add flavor/taste and texture to foods  Excess causes OBESITY * Why a quality CHO - moderate protein - low fat diet is desirable! We have subcutaneous and visceral fat stores. Visceral fat is more easily mobilized making it more dangerous because it leads to higher blood cholesterol (TBC) levels!

13 Types and Sources of Fats
Monounsaturated fats or “monos”  Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils Healthy… help reduce atheroslerosis & CHD Liquid at room temperature Polyunsaturated fats or “polys”  Healthy… if NOT hydrogenated! Also liquid at room temperature Basically liquid oils are healthier than solids. Canola oil vs bacon/sausage fat?

14 Types and Sources of Fats
Saturated Fats  Found primarily in ANIMAL foods Misconception- also found in vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils Exs. - Palm and coconut oils Usually SOLID at room temperature Trans Fatty Acids or Hydrogenated Fats   * Chemically altered monos or polys that may be much much worse than saturated fats! * Read food labels and AVOID totally!!! Cities are regulating and having Trans fats eliminated form restaurants!

15 Polyunsaturated Fats 
Two key forms: Omega-3 fatty acids Found primarily in fish… cold vs warm H2O ? Supplements Omega-6 fatty acids Found primarily in certain vegetable oils Exs.- corn, soybean, and cottonseed oils ? Tuna vs good ‘ol SEK catfish? Cold water fish are higher in Omega-3 healthy fats. Fried catfish vs baked trout/salmon?

16 Comparison of Dietary Fats
There may be controversy over whether coconut oil is unhealthy or not. Experts disagree! Go MOUNDS lovers!!!

17 Avoiding Trans Fatty Acids  AKA “Hydrogenated Fats”
Read food labels and … Avoid foods with “vegetable shortening” or “partially hydrogenated” or TRANS fats “Cholesterol Free,” “Low Saturated,” “Low Cholesterol,” may not be low in hydrogenated fats Cook with Canola or Olive oil Avoid deep fried foods … duhhh Two reasons for fat in the diet…. Taste/texture and transfers heat during cooking. Find a healthier way to cook than deep frying w/ fat.

18 Saturated and Trans Fats: Comparing Butter and Margarine
SOURCE: Food an Drug Administration

19 HHHMMMMMM. The point is obvious and not obvious
HHHMMMMMM. The point is obvious and not obvious. Canola is much less saturated than coconut. However, ALL oil has 9 Kcals per gram and thus is a highly “caloric dense” nutrient and leading cause of obesity! Chapter 8

20 Fats and Health Fats affect blood cholesterol levels
LDL= “bad” or “lousy/lethal” cholesterol HDL= “good” or “healthy” cholesterol Saturated and trans fats raise LDL  Trans fats also lower HDL  Unsaturated fats lower LDL  * Fats also affect triglyceride levels, inflammation, heart rhythm, blood pressure, and cancer risk

21 This meal is over 85% fat. Processed bologna?
Chapter 8

22 Which omelet ingredient/s (meat) are the better choices
Which omelet ingredient/s (meat) are the better choices? By % fat calories…. 1- ham, 2- bacon & 3- sausage. About the same for pizza topping choices! Chapter 8

23 Recommended Fat Intake
Acceptable Range = 20–35% of total daily calories as fat… AHA suggests… Monos 10% Polys 10% < Saturated/Trans 10% *** Daily Fat Gram Speed Limits*** Women g/day Men g/day Write down the % of fat Kcals you ate yesterday or today? People have NO idea unless they use a computer program. We can however easily count daily fat grams! “So Easy a Caveperson….. “

24 Fats in Fast Foods & Snack Foods
Snack Food Line-up No label peeking Line up by most fat to least fat gms Read labels and line up correctly Chip Burning Demo? Fast Food Restaurant “Guides to Nutritious Dining”

25 Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure
Protein = compound made of amino acids Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones Used primarily during rest to “repair” or rebuild vs supplying E during exercise

26 Complete and Incomplete Proteins
Complete “essential” proteins = foods that supply all the essential amino acids Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy Incomplete “non-essential” proteins = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts Vegetarians???

27 Recommended Protein Intake
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range = 10–35% of total daily Kcals Adequate daily intake of protein = 0.8 to 1.0 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight (BW / 2= ???g) Needs vary by age & activity level One fist- 2 fist- 3 fist- 4…. ? Suggested protein levels have traditionally been 12-15% of calories. With special populations… athletes and older folks… if we start approaching the 25-30% levels it had better be quality protein w/o fat. *We only need to eat the quantity of protein equal to the mass of one fist. If counting grams of protein simply eat about ½ of your weight in lbs.

28 Summary: Healthy Macronutrient Ranges
Carbohydrate = 45–65% daily Kcals Fat = 20–35% of total daily Kcals Protein = 10–35% of total daily Kcals We Have Found the Enemy and s/he is US! POGO Having 35% of calories from Protein seems high. Pogo was an old cartoon back in the 60’s : ) What is the health message here??

29 Nutritional Planning: Choosing & Shopping for Healthier Foods
Read Food labels - Avoid partially hydrogenated / trans fats - Limit high fructose corn syrup / simple sugars - Obtain 2 gms fiber per 100 Kcals - The shorter the ingredient list the better Count fat grams - (W / M 70-80) • Know Fat Percent vs Percent Daily Values

30 Food Labels Read labels to learn more about your food choices.
Calculate % fat ? Know DV’s ? Know fat grams? Chip demo? Be sure students can estimate the % fat by calories, know daily value vs % fat and can count daily fat grams!

31 Attendance ???’s #1- How many Kcals are there in one gram of alcohol? Fat? (4-7-9 rule) #2- The Macronutrients supply all of the ____ needed to produce E? #3- T or F Most Americans need to take protein supplements! Chapter 8

32 2010 Dietary Guidelines The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are published by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Guidelines provide authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for Federal food and nutrition education programs. * For information on the development of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, check on Chapter 8

33 FINAL STUDY QUESTIONS 1- All of the calories and energy (E) in the diet are supplied by the _____________? 2- Foods full of simple sugars & causing an immediate spike in blood sugar are called ________ glycemic index foods. 3- Healthy fats include monos & _______ whereas unhealthy fats are _____&_____. 4- Your daily” fat gram speed limit” is _____gms (W) and ______gms (M) 5- Fats or oils one should include in their diet include _________ & __________? 1- macronutrients 2- high /70-80 gms 4- canola & olive (mono’s) Chapter 8

34 Web Sites Fats 101- American Heart Association- Calorie Counters- Fast Food Chains & Restaurant Calorie Counter-

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