Presentation on theme: "Healthy Nutrition Guidelines"— Presentation transcript:
1Healthy Nutrition Guidelines #1- MacronutrientsProperty of HHPR Department-PSU
2Body Composition Review ?’s What is a healthy % fat range for college age women? Ditto for men??Are genetics or lifestyle habits more influential in determining % fat???Identify the 2 basic lifestyle factors you control that determine whether you will gain, lose or maintain body weight????Chapter 8
3Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Essential nutrients = substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet E needsMacronutrients MicronutrientsProteins -VitaminsCarbohydrates -MineralsFats -Water
4Energy (E) from Food Kilocalorie or Kcal= a measure of E content Three classes of macronutrients our essential nutrients supply ALL your energy (E) or KcalsCarbohydrates (CHO)FatsProteinsKcals or E in foods can be measured by burning the food and measuring the heat generated. Typically listed in British Thermal Units… which of the 3 macronutrients above will generate the most heat?
5Sources of Energy in the Diet “4-7-9 Rule” One gram of each has how many Kcals? The “4-7-9 Rule” could be called the “ Rule” for the protein-CHO-fat-alcohol caloric/Kcal content of the macronutrients.
6Simple vs Complex Carbohydrates Simple CHO or “simple sugars” (less healthy)Found naturally in fruits and milk and added to many other foodsInclude sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactoseComplex CHO or “starches” (healthier)Found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubersIncludes most types of dietary fiberIt is suggested that 2/3 or more of our CHO’s come from Complex Cho.
7Carbohydrates (CHO) The Ideal Source of Energy A#1 primary supply energy to ALL body cells.Brain & nervous system use only CHODuring high-intensity “anaerobic” exercise our muscles get most of their E from CHOCHO is stored as:Muscle glycogen, blood & liver glucoseV limited E source… 1900 KCALS average personDr. Atkin’s “ extremely low CHO/ high protein” diet???Atkin’s diet does NOT work physiologically! QUALITY Healthy Complex CHO should be the foundation of a healthy diet.
8Refined Carbohydrates vs Whole Grains Whole grains are higher in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compoundsWhole grains take longer to digestMake people feel full soonerCause a slower rise in glucose levelsChoose foods that have “whole grain” as the first item on the ingredient list on the food label… exs-Whole wheat, whole rye, whole oats, oatmeal, whole-grain corn, brown rice, popcorn, barley, etc.The sooner one feels full or “satiated” the less they will consume!
9Glycemic IndexGlycemic index = a measure of how the ingestion of CHO affects blood glucose levelsConsumption of CHO causes insulin and glucose levels in the blood to rise and fallHigh glycemic index foods cause quick and dramatic changes in glucose levels High glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and CHD
10Glycemic IndexWhat are examples of high glycemic foods that would spike blood sugar levels? Simple CHO “sugary” foods that are digested quickly cause the rapid changes in blood glucose levels.
11Recommended Carbohydrate Intake Acceptable Range = 45–65% of total daily calories as CHO… the foundation!CHO Loading for aerobic athletes (70%)Adequate daily intake of CHO = 130+ gramsLimit intake of added “simple” sugarsExperts 10-25% or less of total daily caloriesLimit simple to <1/3 of total CHO intake!Explain CHO loading technique. Basically one increases their quality CHO intake for 2-3 days prior to an aerobic competition.
12Fats—Essential in Limited Healthy Amounts Body fat stores supply EInsulates the bodySupports and cushions organsAbsorbs fat-soluble vitaminsAdd flavor/taste and texture to foods Excess causes OBESITY* Why a quality CHO - moderate protein - low fat diet is desirable!We have subcutaneous and visceral fat stores. Visceral fat is more easily mobilized making it more dangerous because it leads to higher blood cholesterol (TBC) levels!
13Types and Sources of Fats Monounsaturated fats or “monos” Found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oilsHealthy… help reduce atheroslerosis & CHDLiquid at room temperaturePolyunsaturated fats or “polys” Healthy… if NOT hydrogenated!Also liquid at room temperatureBasically liquid oils are healthier than solids. Canola oil vs bacon/sausage fat?
14Types and Sources of Fats Saturated Fats Found primarily in ANIMAL foodsMisconception- also found in vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oilsExs. - Palm and coconut oilsUsually SOLID at room temperatureTrans Fatty Acids or Hydrogenated Fats * Chemically altered monos or polys that may be much much worse than saturated fats!* Read food labels and AVOID totally!!!Cities are regulating and having Trans fats eliminated form restaurants!
15Polyunsaturated Fats Two key forms:Omega-3 fatty acidsFound primarily in fish… cold vs warm H2O ?SupplementsOmega-6 fatty acidsFound primarily in certain vegetable oilsExs.- corn, soybean, and cottonseed oils? Tuna vs good ‘ol SEK catfish?Cold water fish are higher in Omega-3 healthy fats. Fried catfish vs baked trout/salmon?
16Comparison of Dietary Fats There may be controversy over whether coconut oil is unhealthy or not. Experts disagree! Go MOUNDS lovers!!!
17Avoiding Trans Fatty Acids AKA “Hydrogenated Fats” Read food labels and …Avoid foods with “vegetable shortening” or “partially hydrogenated” or TRANS fats“Cholesterol Free,” “Low Saturated,” “Low Cholesterol,” may not be low inhydrogenated fatsCook with Canola or Olive oilAvoid deep fried foods … duhhhTwo reasons for fat in the diet…. Taste/texture and transfers heat during cooking. Find a healthier way to cook than deep frying w/ fat.
18Saturated and Trans Fats: Comparing Butter and Margarine SOURCE: Food an Drug Administration
19HHHMMMMMM. The point is obvious and not obvious HHHMMMMMM. The point is obvious and not obvious. Canola is much less saturated than coconut. However, ALL oil has 9 Kcals per gram and thus is a highly “caloric dense” nutrient and leading cause of obesity!Chapter 8
20Fats and Health Fats affect blood cholesterol levels LDL= “bad” or “lousy/lethal” cholesterolHDL= “good” or “healthy” cholesterolSaturated and trans fats raise LDL Trans fats also lower HDL Unsaturated fats lower LDL * Fats also affect triglyceride levels, inflammation, heart rhythm, blood pressure, and cancer risk
21This meal is over 85% fat. Processed bologna? Chapter 8
22Which omelet ingredient/s (meat) are the better choices Which omelet ingredient/s (meat) are the better choices? By % fat calories…. 1- ham, 2- bacon & 3- sausage. About the same for pizza topping choices!Chapter 8
23Recommended Fat Intake Acceptable Range = 20–35% of total daily calories as fat… AHA suggests…Monos 10%Polys 10%< Saturated/Trans 10%*** Daily Fat Gram Speed Limits***Women g/dayMen g/dayWrite down the % of fat Kcals you ate yesterday or today? People have NO idea unless they use a computer program. We can however easily count daily fat grams! “So Easy a Caveperson….. “
24Fats in Fast Foods & Snack Foods Snack Food Line-upNo label peekingLine up by most fat to least fat gmsRead labels and lineup correctlyChip Burning Demo?Fast Food Restaurant “Guides to Nutritious Dining”
25Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure Protein = compound made of amino acidsProteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormonesUsed primarily during rest to “repair” or rebuild vs supplying E during exercise
26Complete and Incomplete Proteins Complete “essential” proteins = foods that supply all the essential amino acidsMeat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soyIncomplete “non-essential” proteins = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acidsPlants, including legumes, grains, and nutsVegetarians???
27Recommended Protein Intake Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range = 10–35% of total daily KcalsAdequate daily intake of protein = 0.8 to 1.0 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight (BW / 2= ???g)Needs vary by age & activity levelOne fist- 2 fist- 3 fist- 4…. ?Suggested protein levels have traditionally been 12-15% of calories. With special populations… athletes and older folks… if we start approaching the 25-30% levels it had better be quality protein w/o fat. *We only need to eat the quantity of protein equal to the mass of one fist. If counting grams of protein simply eat about ½ of your weight in lbs.
28Summary: Healthy Macronutrient Ranges Carbohydrate = 45–65% daily KcalsFat = 20–35% of total daily KcalsProtein = 10–35% of total daily KcalsWe Have Found the Enemyand s/he is US! POGOHaving 35% of calories from Protein seems high.Pogo was an old cartoon back in the 60’s : ) What is the health message here??
29Nutritional Planning: Choosing & Shopping for Healthier Foods Read Food labels- Avoid partially hydrogenated / trans fats- Limit high fructose corn syrup / simple sugars- Obtain 2 gms fiber per 100 Kcals- The shorter the ingredient list the betterCount fat grams- (W / M 70-80)• Know Fat Percent vs Percent Daily Values
30Food Labels Read labels to learn more about your food choices. Calculate % fat ?Know DV’s ?Know fat grams?Chip demo?Be sure students can estimate the % fat by calories, know daily value vs % fat and can count daily fat grams!
31Attendance ???’s#1- How many Kcals are there in one gram of alcohol? Fat? (4-7-9 rule)#2- The Macronutrients supply all of the ____ needed to produce E?#3- T or F Most Americans need to take protein supplements!Chapter 8
322010 Dietary GuidelinesThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans are published by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). The Guidelines provide authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for Federal food and nutrition education programs.* For information on the development of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines, check onChapter 8
33FINAL STUDY QUESTIONS1- All of the calories and energy (E) in the diet are supplied by the _____________? 2- Foods full of simple sugars & causing an immediate spike in blood sugar are called ________ glycemic index foods. 3- Healthy fats include monos & _______ whereas unhealthy fats are _____&_____. 4- Your daily” fat gram speed limit” is _____gms (W) and ______gms (M) 5- Fats or oils one should include in their diet include _________ & __________?1- macronutrients 2- high /70-80 gms 4- canola & olive (mono’s)Chapter 8