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1. 2 Tenderfoot Requirement #12 a. Demonstrate how to care for someone who is choking. b. Show first aid for the following: Simple cuts and scrapes Blisters.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 Tenderfoot Requirement #12 a. Demonstrate how to care for someone who is choking. b. Show first aid for the following: Simple cuts and scrapes Blisters."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Tenderfoot Requirement #12 a. Demonstrate how to care for someone who is choking. b. Show first aid for the following: Simple cuts and scrapes Blisters on the hand and foot Minor (thermal/heat) burns or scalds (superficial, or first degree) Bites and stings of insects and ticks Venomous snakebite Nosebleed Frostbite and sunburn Second Class Requirement #6 a. Show what to do for "hurry" cases of stopped breathing, serious bleeding, and ingested poisoning. b. Prepare a personal first aid kit to take with you on a hike. c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Object in the eye Bite of a suspected rabid animal Puncture wounds from a splinter, nail, and fishhook Serious burns (partial thickness, or second degree) Heat exhaustion Shock Heatstroke, dehydration, hypothermia, and hyperventilation 3

4 First Class Requirement #8 b. Demonstrate bandages for a sprained ankle. and for injuries on the head, the upper arm, and the collarbone. c. Show how to transport by yourself, and with one other person, a person: from a smoke-filled room with a sprained ankle, for at least 25 yards. d. Tell the five most common signals of a heart attack. e. Explain the steps (procedures) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 4

5 Tenderfoot Requirement #12 a. Demonstrate how to care for someone who is choking. b. Show first aid for the following: Simple cuts and scrapes Blisters on the hand and foot Minor (thermal/heat) burns or scalds (superficial, or first degree) Bites and stings of insects and ticks Venomous snakebite Nosebleed Frostbite and sunburn 5

6 a. Demonstrate how to care for someone who is choking. Heimlich maneuver Step One: Ask the choking person to stand if he or she is sitting. Step Two: Place yourself slightly behind the standing victim. Step Three: Reassure the victim that you know the Heimlich maneuver and are going to help. Step Four: Place your arms around the victim's waist. Step Five: Make a fist with one hand and place your thumb toward the victim, just above his or her belly button. Step Six: Grab your fist with your other hand. Step Seven: Deliver five upward squeeze-thrusts into the abdomen. Step Eight: Make each squeeze-thrust strong enough to dislodge a foreign body. Step Nine: Understand that your thrusts make the diaphragm move air out of the victim's lungs, creating a kind of artificial cough. Step Ten: Keep a firm grip on the victim, since he or she can lose consciousness and fall to the ground if the Heimlich maneuver is not effective. Step Eleven: Repeat the Heimlich maneuver until the foreign body is expelled. 6

7 b. Show first aid for the following: Simple cuts and scrapes Blisters on the hand and foot Simple Cut Will have dirt ground into the skin, so make sure it is clean…you may have to scrub a little! Bandage to keep clean and dry. Change dressing frequently if wound is seeping moisture. Steps Stop the bleeding Clean the wound Apply Antibiotic Cover with band aid Blisters Usually form on the foot or the hands. Common cause is from rubbing inside shoe or glove. Treat as a wound – clean with soap and water. Usually don’t break deep blister. Some superficial blisters can be lanced with a sterile needle, cleaned, and bandaged. Keep off pressure by changing socks/gloves, bandage, or using moleskin. 7

8 b. Show first aid for the following: Minor (thermal/heat) burns or scalds (superficial, or first degree) Bites and stings of insects and ticks First Degree Burns: Skin is red, dry, and painful Minimal swelling Skin not broken Tick Sting Not poisonous Can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever or Lyme disease Tick embeds it’s mouth parts in skin and may remain for days Removal Do not try to remove an embedded tick by: covering it with petroleum jelly soaking it with bleach burning it away Allergic Reactions Ask the person if they need help, Then call 911 and help them use there Meds like a epi-pen etc. Bandage if necessary. Skin lotion may be helpful (Aloe). 911 may not be needed. Grasp close to skin with tweezers and pull gently until tick lets go, or slide credit card under from the rear 8

9 b. Show first aid for the following: Venomous snakebite Nosebleed Venomous Snake Bite First Aid For: Have victim lie down and stay calm (Keep bitten area immobile and below level of heart) Call 911 Wash bite wound with soap and water Remove jewelry or tight clothing before swelling Do not try to catch snake but note appearance Nosebleed Sit the person down with head held well forward Do not let their head tip back - blood may run down throat Pinch the nose firmly whilst bending forward just below the bridge After ten minutes release the pressure If there is still bleeding reapply the pressure for further periods of ten minutes If the nose bleed persists beyond 30 minutes get help 9

10 b. Show first aid for the following: Frostbite Frostbite: Looks Like: Skin looks waxy and white, gray, yellow, or bluish Area is numb or feels tingly or aching Severe frostbite: Area feels hard May become painless After warming, area becomes swollen and may blister First Aid For: Move victim to warm environment Hold frostbitten area in hands to warm it – do not rub Remove any tight clothing or jewelry around area Put dry gauze or fluffy cloth between frostbitten fingers or toes Do not use fire, heat lamp, fire, heating pad to re-warm Seek medical attention 10

11 b. Show first aid for the following: Sun Burn First Aid For: Steps: Get out of the sun. Staying in the sun after the burn is present will make it worse. Look for blisters. Blistering means the skin is completely damaged and complications are likely. If the area with blisters is bigger than one entire arm or the whole abdomen, seek medical attention by calling 911 or visiting the emergency department. Take a cool shower or bath to soothe the pain. Apply aloe or another cooling agent. Whatever you use - DO NOT APPLY BUTTER OR OIL TO ANY BURN! Over the counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can be used for the pain of a sunburn. If stronger pain relief is needed, contact a physician or go to the emergency department. + = 11

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13 Second Class Requirement #6 a. Show what to do for "hurry" cases of stopped breathing, serious bleeding, and ingested poisoning. b. Prepare a personal first aid kit to take with you on a hike. c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Object in the eye Bite of a suspected rabid animal Puncture wounds from a splinter, nail, and fishhook Serious burns (partial thickness, or second degree) Heat exhaustion Shock Heatstroke, dehydration, hypothermia, and hyperventilation 13

14 Second Class Requirement #6 a. Show what to do for "hurry" cases of stopped breathing, serious bleeding, and ingested poisoning. Stopped Breathing: See the next set of slides: 14

15 15 If You Encounter An Unconscious Victim –> Do ABCs Open A irway Check For B reathing Check C irculation A B C

16 16 A - Open Airway B - Check for breathing

17 17 C - Circulation Check a pulse – at wrist or throat

18 18 Check Pulses Now

19 Second Class Requirement #6 a. Show what to do for "hurry" cases of stopped breathing, serious bleeding, and ingested poisoning. Stopped Breathing: See slide #24 Rescue Breathing: See slide #24 Serious Bleeding See slide #28 Ingested Poison See Slide #35 19

20 20 Rescue Breathing for Non-Breathing Adults

21 21 Rescue Breathing Start immediately if victim not breathing Don’t forget to have someone call 911 It is possible that heart could still be beating – only rescue breathing needed.

22 22 Rescue Breathing Techniques 1. Position the victim on their back 2. Open the airway 3. Use a barrier device if you have one 4. Watch victim’s chest rise

23 23 One breath every five seconds

24 24 Dealing With Cuts and Bleeding

25 25 Bleeding Control Best Methods Are: Direct Pressure Elevation

26 26 Apply pressure directly to the wound Direct Pressure

27 27 Raise limb above heart level, keep applying pressure Elevation

28 You Should Clean Most Wounds Unless the wound is very large or bleeding seriously, clean the wound to help prevent infection Wash your hands first and wear gloves if available 28

29 29 Signs and Symptoms of Infection Wound area is red, swollen, and warm Red streaks or trails on the skin near the wound Pain Pus Fever See a health care provider immediatel y

30 30 Scrapes / Abrasions Will have dirt ground into the skin, so make sure it is clean…you may have to scrub a little! Bandage to keep clean and dry. Change dressing frequently if wound is seeping moisture.

31 31 Poisoning

32 32 If someone is poisoned you could see nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, drowsiness, dizziness Determine (if you can) what was swallowed, when, and how much. Call Poison Control Center or 911 Swallowed Poisons Small children love pretty bottles.

33 33 Carbon Monoxide Invisible, odorless, and tasteless—and very lethal May be present from motor vehicle exhaust, a faulty furnace, fires, some camping heaters Exposure to large amounts causes an immediate poisoning reaction Get victim away from source

34 34 First Aid for Drug Overdose Put unresponsive victim in recovery position, check ABCs, and call 911 For responsive victim ensure it is safe to approach If behavior is erratic or violent, call 911 and stay away Try to find out what drug is involved

35 35 Poison Plants

36 36 Poison Ivy Poison Oak Poison Sumac

37 37 First Aid for Poison Plants Wash area thoroughly with soap and water For severe reactions or swelling of face, victim needs medical attention Treat itching with calamine lotion, topical hydrocortisone cream, and oral antihistamine Wash clothing, shoes and pets

38 b. Prepare a personal first aid kit to take with you on a hike. See the group leader so you can complete this requirement later. c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Object in the eye Bite of a suspected rabid animal Object In The Eye Do not rub eye Gently pull upper eyelid out and down over lower eyelid – this sometimes works Gently flush eye with water from medicine dropper or water glass – don’t allow water to run into other eye If the particle is visible, carefully try to remove it with a clean cloth or clean gauze pad If victim has any vision problems or pain, cover eye with sterile dressing and seek medical attention For minor wounds. If the bite barely breaks the skin and there is no danger of rabies, treat it as a minor wound. Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water. Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection and cover the bite with a clean bandage. For deep wounds. If the animal bite creates a deep puncture of the skin or the skin is badly torn and bleeding, apply pressure with a clean, dry cloth to stop the bleeding and see your doctor. For infection. If you notice signs of infection, such as swelling, redness, increased pain or oozing, see your doctor immediately. For suspected rabies. If you suspect the bite was caused by an animal that might carry rabies — including any wild or domestic animal of unknown immunization status — see your doctor immediately. Need To Know 38

39 c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Puncture wounds from a splinter, nail, and fishhook Serious burns (partial thickness, or second degree) Puncture Wound: If an object is embedded in the body don’t pull it out. Bandage in place and go to emergency room. If the object has already been removed wash thoroughly – infection is more likely because germs have been pushed deeper in the body. Depending on where and how deep – this may still need a doctor’s care – you can’t see how deep it went or what is going on inside the body. Serious Burns Skin is swollen and red, may be blotchy or streaked Blisters that may be weeping clear fluid Very Painful Apply a loose dry bandage and call 911 39

40 c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Heat exhaustion Shock Heat Exhaustion: Heat exhaustion develops when body becomes dehydrated in hot environment Heavy sweating Thirst Fatigue Heat cramps Then Headache Dizziness Nausea Vomiting Shock Not enough blood is getting circulated around the body. Untreated – it can lead to death. Can be caused by all kinds to things like: Severe bleeding Heart problems Nervous system injuries Dehydration Serious infections Severe burns Allergic reactions First Aid For: Move victim from heat to rest in cool place Loosen or remove unnecessary clothing Give sports drink or water to drink Raise feet 8-12 inches Put wet cloths on forehead and body or spray skin with water Seek medical care if victim’s condition worsens or does not improve within 30 minutes Maintain victim’s normal body temperature Have victim lie on back and raise legs 8 to 12 inches (except with spine injury) 40

41 41 What is Shock? Untreated – it can lead to death. Can be caused by all kinds to things like: Severe bleeding Heart problems Nervous system injuries Dehydration Serious infections Severe burns Allergic reactions Not enough blood is getting circulated around the body.

42 42 Shock Looks Like… Scared/confusion Dizziness Pale/bluish skin Cold/clammy skin Scared/confusion Dizziness Pale/bluish skin Cold/clammy skin Rapid, shallow breathing Nausea/vomiting Thirst Rapid, shallow breathing Nausea/vomiting Thirst Shock, if untreated, can lead to death.

43 43 First Aid for Shock Have victim lie on back and raise legs 8 to 12 inches (except with spine injury) Maintain victim’s normal body temperature

44 c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: Heatstroke, dehydration, hypothermia, and hyperventilation Heat Stroke: A life-threatening emergency more common during hot summer periods May develop slowly over several days or more rapidly with strenuous activity in the heat Different from heat exhaustion: Skin is flushed and feels very hot and dry to touch; skin may by pale, or may turn red if severe Victim becomes confused, irrational, may become unresponsive or have convulsions Dehydration: Symptoms thirst less-frequent urination dry skin fatigue light-headedness dizziness confusion dry mouth and mucous membranes increased heart rate and breathing Treatment for dehydration: If caught early, dehydration can often be treated at home under a physician's guidance. In children, directions for giving food and fluids will differ according to the cause of the dehydration, so it is important to consult your pediatrician. In cases of mild dehydration, simple rehydration is recommended by drinking fluids. Many sports drinks on the market effectively restore body fluids, electrolytes, and salt balance. For moderate dehydration, intravenous fluids may be required, although if caught early enough, simple rehydration may be effective. Cases of serious dehydration should be treated as a medical emergency, and hospitalization, along with intravenous fluids, is necessary. Immediate action should be taken. 44

45 c. Demonstrate first aid for the following: hypothermia, and hyperventilation Hypothermia: Occurs when body cannot make heat as fast as it loses it Internal body temperature drops below 95°F Can occur whenever and wherever a person feels cold, including indoors in poorly heated areas Symptoms Shivering (but stops in severe hypothermia) Confusion, or irrational Lethargic, drowsiness Pale, cool skin Changing Levels of responsiveness First Aid For: Call 911 for all severe hypothermia victims Quickly get victim out of cold, and remove wet clothing Have victim lie down and cover with blankets Serious cases need immediate medical care Hyperventilation Signs & Symptoms Your heart pounds. It feels like you can't get enough air. You feel tingling and numbness in the arms, legs, and around the mouth. You feel a sense of doom. You may pass out. Cure: Open up a small paper bag. Loosely cover your nose and mouth with it. Breathe slowly into the bag. Re-breathe the air in the bag. Do this about 10 times. Set the bag aside. Breathe normally for a couple of minutes. Repeat the steps above for up to 15 minutes. Try to breathe slowly. Focus on taking one breath every 5 seconds. 45

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47 First Class Requirement #8 b. Demonstrate bandages for a sprained ankle. and for injuries on the head, the upper arm, and the collarbone. c. Show how to transport by yourself, and with one other person, a person: from a smoke- filled room with a sprained ankle, for at least 25 yards. d. Tell the five most common signals of a heart attack. e. Explain the steps (procedures) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 47

48 First Class Requirement #8 b. Demonstrate bandages for a sprained ankle. and for injuries on the head, upper arm and the collarbone. Bandage For A Sprained Ankle Immobilize area in position found Put ice or cold pack on area Wrap joint with compression bandage Use soft splint to immobilize and support joint Seek medical attention if appropriate Injury To The Head See the demonstration. Upper Arm See the demonstration Collarbone See the demonstration 48

49 First Class Requirement #8 c. Show how to transport by yourself, and with one other person, a person: from a smoke-filled room See slide 37 d. Tell the five most common signals of a heart attack. Some Include: Persistent pressure, tightness, ache, or pain in chest Pain in neck, shoulders, or arms Shortness of breath Dizziness, lightheadedness, feeling of impending doom Pale skin, sweating Nausea e. Explain the steps (procedures) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). See slide 46 49

50 50 Shoulder Drag Support the head Use for short distances

51 51 Ankle Drag Use for short distances

52 52 Unresponsive victim who cannot safely be dragged Packstrap Carry

53 53 Responsive victim who can walk with help One Person Walking Assist

54 54 Two Person Walking Assist

55 55 Fireman’s Carry Note hand lock Use wrist lock

56 56 Lighter victim or child Piggyback Carry

57 57 Blanket Drag Support victim’s head, use for longer distances

58 58 Two-Handed Seat Carry Use this with two rescuers

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60 60 Performing CPR for Adults

61 61 Open airway

62 62 Look, listen and feel for breathing for up to 10 seconds

63 63 If not breathing, give 2 breaths Use a barrier device if you have one.

64 64 Check pulse and look for signs of breathing, movement, coughing.

65 65 Use heels of 2 hands and place in between nipples If no signs of circulation start CPR

66 66 In 2006 CPR to breath ratio changed to 30:2 ! Count: one, two, three … 30 Then give 2 breaths Compressions at a rate of 100/min

67 67 Continue CPR until… Victim shows signs of circulation AED access Help arrives You are too tired to continue

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70 Tender Foot Requirements 70

71 Second Class Requirements 71

72 First Class Requirements 72

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