3 Goals of the workshopTo increase knowledge about gender based discrimination and violenceTo understand the goals and methods of the Survey on Violence against WomenTo develop interviewing skillsTo become proficient in the use of the survey questionnaire/module
4 Workshop Program Your input is very valuable! [Two weeks long] Theory and practice, including field pilotChanges may be made to questionnaire during the processYour input is very valuable!
5 Field work – immediately following the training!
6 Ground Rules Regular attendance Be respectful Ask for help when you don’t understandListen without judgement or criticismBe willing to challenge your beliefsHonor confidentialityNo one is required to share more than they want to
8 Defining Sex and Gender Sex refers to the biological differences between men and women. They are generally permanent and universal.Gender refers to the social relations between men and women. It therefore refers not to men or women but the relationship between them, and the way this is socially constructed. Gender roles can be changed.
10 What is violence against women? “ any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life".(United Nations, 1993)
11 Violence against women includes: partner abuse,sexual abuse of girlsrape, including marital rapedowry related violencefemale genital mutilationtrafficking in womenforced prostitutionsexual harassment at the workplaceviolence condoned or carried out by the state (i.e. rape in war)
12 Definition of domestic violence A pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors,including physical, sexual and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion,used by adults or adolescents against family members, most commonly against their current or former intimate partners.
13 Woman interviewed in Peru “So I take a blanket and I spend the night with my children out in the cold because he is hitting me too much. I have to take the kids to stop him hitting them too. I would go out in the fields and sleep there all night. I have done that more than ten times…”Woman interviewed in Peru
14 Common types of abusive behaviors Physical abuseSexual abusePsychological abuseUse of economicsUse of children to control an adult victim
15 Examples of physical abuse SlappingShakingBeating with fist or objectStrangulationBurningKickingThreats with knife or gun
16 Examples of sexual abuse Coerced sex through threats or intimidationCoerced sex through physical forceForcing unwanted sexual actsForcing sex in front of othersForcing sex with others
17 Examples of psychological abuse Isolation from othersExcessive jealousyControl her activitiesVerbal aggressionIntimidation through destruction of propertyHarassment or stalkingThreats of violenceConstant belittling and humiliation
18 Examples of economic abuse With-holding fundsSpending family fundsMaking most financial decisionsNot contributing financially to the familyControlling the victim’s access to health care, employment, etc.
19 Examples of using children to control an adult victim Physical and sexual abuse of childrenHostage taking of childrenCustody battlesUsing children to monitor the adult victim
20 How common is physical or sexual violence in women’s lives?
21 How common is partner violence? In most sites, 4 out of 5 women who have been abused (by anybody: partners and others) reported being abused by a partner.Between 15% (Japan) and 71% (Ethiopia) of ever- partnered women experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partnerSource WHO study 2005
22 Pregnancy is not necessarily a protected time “He hit me in the belly and made me miscarry two babies - identical or fraternal twins, I don’t know. I went to the hospital with heavy bleeding and they cleaned me up”Woman interviewed in PeruIn most sites 4%-12% of women who had been pregnant were beaten during a pregnancyIn almost 100% of cases the abuser was the father of the unborn childBetween one-quarter to half of these women reported being punched or kicked in the stomachSource WHO study 2005
23 Physical violence usually occurs together with sexual and emotional violence Globally, one-third to one-half of all physically abused women also report sexual violenceAlmost all physically abused women also experience severe emotional abuse
24 IV. Causes and Consequences of Violence against Women
25 An ecological framework for understanding violence SocietyCommunityRelationshipIndividual
26 Violence is learned behavior Boys growing up in families where father is violent are more likely to become perpetrators of partner violence in their adulthood.
27 Domestic violence is learned behavior: learned through observationlearned through personal experiencelearned in culturelearned in family,learned in communities, schools, friends, etc.
28 It may be aggravated, but not caused by illnessheredityalcohol and drugslack of self-controleconomic problemsanger/stressthe victim’s behavior or problems in the relationship
29 Violence against women is a product of gender subordination Four issues are consistently associated with societies with high levels of domestic violence:norms of male entitlement/ownership of womenmale control of wealth in the familynotions of masculinity tied to male dominance/honormale control of decision making
30 Cultural differences in the meaning of violence: In large parts of the developing world, wife beating is seen as a form of “correction” or chastisementBeating is acceptable as long as it is for “just cause”Acceptability depends on who does what to whom, for what reason
31 Beating as discipline“I think that if the wife is guilty, the husband has the right to hit her…If I have done something wrong…nobody should defend me. But if I haven’t done something wrong, I have a right to be defended.”-- Indigenous woman, Mexico“If it is a great mistake, then the husband is justified in beating his wife. Why not? A cow will not be obedient without beatings”-- Rural man,Tamil Nadu, India
32 Health Consequences of Abuse For example:unwanted pregnancychronic pain syndromesinjurydepressionalcohol/drug useSTDs/HIVIrritable bowel syndromegynecological disordersFatal Outcomeshomicidesuicidematernal deathsAids related deathsNon-fatal outcomesphysicalmentalinjurious health behaviorsreproductive health
33 Other consequences of violence For women:own healthfinancial statusability to workability to functionparticipate in societyFor children:low birthweightemotional well-beingbehavioural difficultiesproblems at schoolinjuriesleave home
34 ConclusionDomestic and especially partner violence against women affects many women around the world -- with grave consequences for them and their children
36 Many women internalize social norms justifying abuse “My husband slaps me, has sex with me against my will and I have to conform. Before being interviewed I didn't really think about this. I thought this is only natural. This is the way a husband behaves.”Woman interviewed in Bangladesh
37 Some of the barriers to leaving for domestic violence victims Fear for more violenceFear for her childrenThinks it is normal/that he will changeEconomic dependenceFamily honor/not wanting to shame the familyLack of safe alternativesLack of community/ family supportWomen are overwhelmed from physical and psychological trauma
38 Silence and stigmaMany women never talk about domestic violence with anybody“I went to my mother first..... I told little by little. Her reaction was ‘Didn’t we tell you?’ ‘You brought this upon yourself, now you pay for it’, ‘There is the child, what will you do? Where will you go?’ and so on ....”Woman interviewed in Turkey
39 Coping & retaliationWomen experiencing violence may utilise a range of strategies to try to minimise or end violenceActions to prevent or reduce violence includeleaving & retaliationPeople may intervene to stop violenceWhen severe, may turn to formal and informal sources of supportDifferent levels of satisfaction with responseMay be others from whom would like to get support
40 Domestic Violence Laws in [country] [to be completed]
41 Resources for victims of violence in [country] [to be completed]
42 VI. Survey on VAWGoalsStudy StructureDesignSampleMain Themes
43 Study goalsTo obtain reliable estimates for the main indicators of violence against womenTo obtain an impression of the extent to which violence is not reported to authorities
44 Required indicator outputs (core set) 1 Total and age-specific rate of women subject to physical violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequencyTotal and age -specific rate of women subject to physical violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequencyTotal and age-specific rate of women subject to sexual violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequencyTotal and age-specific rate of women subject to sexual violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and frequency
45 Required indicator outputs (core set) 2 Total and age-specific rate of ever-partnered women subject to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months by frequencyTotal and age-specific rate of ever-partnered women subject to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner during lifetime by frequencyTotal and age specific rate of women subjected to psychological violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partnerTotal and age specific rate of women subjected to economic violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partnerTotal and age specific rate of women subjected to female genital mutilation
46 Required classifications for the indicators 1-4: severity (for physical violence)1-4: relationship to perpetrator1-6: frequencyDenominators1-4: all women5-8: ever-partnered
47 Criteria that were considered for the VAW module Set of indicators should be addressed (as a minimum)Building on instruments that have been well tested and validated across culturesEnabling comparative results (also with surveys already done)
49 Study design Household survey Study population all women 15+ Not men for safety and practical reasonsRepresentative for whole countryMulti-stage sampling schemeInterview one eligible woman per household (randomly selected)[other aspects]
50 Ethical considerations Sensitivity of research topicThe survey uses a “safe name”Individual consent / voluntary participationConfidentialityPhysical safety of informants & researchersDo no harm, respect women’s decisions & choicesMechanisms to support researchers & field-workersAvoid harmful publicityProvision of crisis interventionFindings used in advocacy, policy making & intervention
52 Structure of VAW module Questions on demographic characteristics of respondent (besides age in particular partnership status and partnership history)Questions on partner violence: psychological, economic, physical, sexualQuestions on violence by others since age 15: physical and sexual
54 Intimate Partner violence: 2 sets of questions A) Questions for current or most recent partnerB) Questions for any other previous partnerActs of controlling behaviourActs of economic violenceActs of emotional abuseActs of physical violenceActs of sexual violence
55 Measurement of controlling behaviour by partner He tries to keep you from seeing your friends?He tries to restrict contact with your family of birth?He insists on knowing where you are at all times?He ignores you and treats you indifferently?He gets angry if you speak with another man?He is often suspicious that you are unfaithful?He expects you to ask his permission before seeking health care for yourself?
56 Measurement of economic abuse by partner He refuses to give you enough money for household expenses, even when he has money for other things?[other questions if applicable]
57 Measurement of emotional violence by partner Insulted you or made you feel bad about yourself?Belittled or humiliated you in front of other people?Done things to scare or intimidate you on purpose (e.g. by the way he looked at you, by yelling and smashing things)?Verbally threatened to hurt you or someone you care about?
58 Measurement of physical violence by partner Slapped or threw something at that could hurt you?Pushed or shoved you or pulled your hair?Hit with his fist or with anything else that could hurt you?Kicked, dragged or beat you up?Choked or burnt you on purpose?Threatened with or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against you?ModerateSevere
59 Measurement of sexual violence by partner Were you ever forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to?Did you ever have sexual intercourse you did not want because you were afraid of what he might do?Ever force you to do something sexual that you did not want or that you found degrading or humiliating?
60 Reference periodFor each of the acts of abuse or violence: controlling behaviours, economic, emotional, physical and sexual violence:past 12 monthslifetime
61 FrequencyFor acts of emotional, physical and sexual violence, and for both past 12 months and before past 12 months: Once, few, many timesIn test module for events of physical and sexual violence in the past 12 months:1) daily, weekly, monthly, less than 1/month2) estimated absolute count
62 Severity For physical partner violence and sexual partner violence: nature of actInjuries as direct effect of any physical or sexual violence (asking for specific injuries)Miscarriage as direct effectSelf reported impact on physical or mental wellbeingAre you ever afraid of partner (never, sometimes, many times, all the time)
63 Type of partner relationship Partner violence questions are separately asked forcurrent or most recent partnerany previous partner(s)Type of relationship with partner (married, living together, dating) is collected for the previous partners who were violent for each set of controlling behaviours, emotional, physical and sexual violence
64 Non reporting of violence One question at the end -- referring to any type of partner violence reported:“Who have you told about your (previous) partner’s behaviour?” (pre-coded list)
66 Measurement of physical violence by others than partners Since the age of 15, has anyone ever hit, beaten, kicked or done anything else to hurt you physically? Threw something at you? Pushed you or pulled your hair? Choked or burnt you on purpose? Threatened with or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against you?PROBE:Anyone else?How about a relative? How about someone at school or work? How about a friend or neighbour? A stranger or anyone else?
67 Perpetrators, reference period and severity Pre-coded list of perpetratorsFor each of the perpetrators mentioned:How many times did this happen since you were 15 y: once, few, manyHow many times did this happen in the past 12 months: once, few, manyFor the each of (max 3) most serious perpetrators: 3 questions on injuries
68 1. Measurement of sexual violence by others than partners – Rape Since the age of 15, has anyone ever forced you into sexual intercourse when you did not want to for example by threatening you, holding you down or putting you in a situation that you could not say no. Remember to include people you have known as well as strangers. Please at this point exclude attempts to force you.Who did this to you? (followed by probes)
69 2. Measurement of other forms of sexual violence by others Since the age of 15, has anyone attempted to force you into a sexual act you did not want, attempted to force you into sexual intercourse (which did not take place), touched you sexually, or did anything else sexually that you did not want. Remember to include people you have known as well as strangers.Who did this to you? (followed by probes)
70 Perpetrators and reference period sexual violence (both sets) Pre-coded list of perpetratorsFor each of the perpetrators mentioned:How many times did this happen since you were 15: once , few, manyHow many times did this happen in the past 12 months: once, few, many
72 Introducing the study: Dress appropriatelyMake a good first impressionHave a positive approachStress confidentialityAnswer questions franklyInterview the respondent alone
73 Conducting the interview: Be neutralNever suggest answersDo no change the wording or sequence of questionsUse tact with hesitant respondentsDo not judge the womanDo not skip questionsDo not hurry the interviewDo not show questionnaire to anyone!
74 Questionnaire format principles Lower cast should be read outCAPITALS should NOT be read outNumerical response codes(1, 2, 3,...) : only one response allowedAlphabetical response codes (A, B, C...): more than one response is allowedQuestions should be asked as writtenAlways put a mark for a question askedFollow skip patterns exactly
75 Accompanying materials Question by question explanation of the questionnaireInterviewer manual[birth dates table][Dummy questionnaire][Supervisor manual]Code book, analysis plan
76 Field Procedures Preparatory activities Contacting households What is a household? In this study:(1) usually living and eating together[(2) visitors staying last 4 weeks][(3) domestic workers 5 nights/week]Locating sample households
77 Problems in contacting households Selected household moved, dwelling is vacantSelected household moved, new household in dwellingDwelling number and name of head of household do not match reality in fieldSelected household does not live in the listed structure
78 Problems (continued)Listing shows one household in dwelling, but two are living there.The head of household has changedHouse is closed and family is away temporarily (a few weeks)House is closed and no one lives thereHouse is closed, family is out for the day
79 Introducing the study “A survey on [use the safe name]” Do not mention domestic violence in initial contact
80 Problems contacting selected women Selected woman not availableRespondent refuses to be interviewedInterview not completedRespondent incapacitatedRevisiting households
81 Informed consent Confidentiality of study General purpose of study Some topics may be difficult to discussRespondent may skip any question or stop the interview at any point[Signature of interviewer]
82 Asking questions Read exactly as written Do not suggest one response over anotherRead questions in the order indicatedFollow instructions on how to read questionsDo not emphasize one response choice over another
83 More tips for asking questions ProbingFor correctnessFor clarityCompletenessDon’t skip questions when not required“Don’t know”Refusal to answer a questionDo not let woman read the questionsFollow skips and filters
84 Recording the responses Pre-coded responsesOne response possibleMultiple responses possible
85 Safety and ethical issues Sensitivity of research topicIndividual consent and voluntary participationConfidentialityPhysical safety of respondentRespecting women’s decisions(Child abuse reporting)Provision of crisis intervention
86 Supporting women reporting violence Your role as an interviewer is:To record women’s responses to questionsNot to provide counseling or advice
87 Supporting women reporting violence Responding to women becoming distressedTake time to talk with kindness and sensitivityBe patient and composedSympathetic comments, such as “I know this is difficult”Offer tissueOffer to take a break or finish interview later
88 Supporting women reporting violence Only terminate the interview:if woman states that she does not want to continueIf you feel that it would be highly detrimental to continue
89 Supporting women reporting violence Handling interruptionsExplore ways to obtain privacyRe-schedule remaining section of interviewTurn to “dummy” questions
90 “. I hardly could pull myself together not to cry “... I hardly could pull myself together not to cry. I wanted to get out of the house as soon as possible and cry out loud.... I hardly made it to the car; as soon as I told my whole team they all burst out in tears. The most painful thing for me was not being able to do anything. At the end I thought that this very research is about hope, and I have done my part.” (interviewer in Turkey)
91 Support for interviewers Debriefing sessions with supervisorsTalk to supervisor or other members of the teamAsk for counseling
92 Safety for interviewers Locating a respondent in the eveningApproaching a respondentInterruptions during interviewOther precautionsWork as a team
93 “Maybe I was mediating by listening to her for half an hour, and it was worth the world when at the end she thanks me and tells me she felt worthy.”(interviewer in Turkey)
94 Module and trainings materials developed by Henrica (Henriette) Jansen (c) photos: Henrica Jansen