Genres Adventure Games cast the player as the protagonist of a story in which the player participates Solving of puzzles, finding various artifacts Sub-genres: Textbased Graphical Action
Genres Textbased Adventures: First adventures Typical use of verb-noun phraser Earliest titles: ‘Hunt the Wumpus’ (G. Yob, 1972, Basic Game) and ‘Adventure’ (W. Crowther, 1972)
Genres ‘Hunt the Wumpus’ Essentially, you're wandering through a network of numbered caves, looking for the Wumpus; when it's nearby, you'll smell it, and you can try to kill it by shooting into one of the caves that's near you. If you wander into the same cave as the Wumpus, you die. Other hazards include bats--which pick you up and dump you somewhere else--and pits, which kill you. source code !
Genres Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker, Game Cube 2004
Genres Educational Games Attempt to teach the user using the game as a vehicle Mostly target young users Growing market ! …can also teach programming on a very high though entertaining level, e.g. ‘Robot Wars’ Best known: ‘Carmen Sandiego’
Genres Fighting (Beat’em Up) Emphasize on one-on-one combat between (two) players Usually focus on martial arts Usually as dramatic and physically impossible as comical Sophisticated interfaces ! Early title: ‘Way of the exploding fist’, Melbourne House 1985 PLAY!PLAY!
Genres ‘Way of the exploding fist’, Melbourne House 1985, Sinclair Spectrum Version
Genres ‘Mortal Combat: Deadly Alliance’, Midway,2002, XBOX
Genres First Person Shooter Emphasize shooting and combat from a specific perspective, most of them place player behind hand/weapon Tend to be scaringly violent 3D effect is usually enhanced by 3D-sound Most prominent: DOOM, Quake, HALO First title: …
Genres SPASIM, 1974 Space Simulation 3D 32 person network multiplayer game Written for Champaign Urbana University of Illinois PLATO network The PLATO system had hundreds of plasma panel terminals (512*512 graphics displays) around the US with 1200bps connections into a CDC Cyber 6400 mainframe
Genres FPS introduced a new technique to game programming: 3D engines, independent from game rules, logic and final graphics are utilized for multiple games FPS are the most controversive games, due to their realism and violence, e.g. the Columbine Highschool Shooting was put in connection with them The combination of AI, real time graphics, physical modelling makes them the most sophisticated programs the gaming area
Genres MMOGs (Massive Multiplayer Online Games) Subscription based virtual worlds for thousands of players to interact together Titles: Ultima Online, Everquest etc.
Genres Platform Games Probably the best known genre, ‘the’ computer game Running, jumping etc. on 2D or 3D platform ‘Side-scrollers’, usually (2d) from a side perspective. Most prominent: Mario Brothers, Donkey Kong, Lode Runner, Sonic, …
Genres Super Mario Sunshine Nintendo Game Cube, 2002
Genres PUZZLE Games Require the gamer to solve logic puzzles or navigate complex locations such as mazes. Genre crosses frequently with adventure and educational games Titles: Tetris, Sokoban, Boulderdash,…
Genres Role Playing Player acts as adventurer who specializes in certain skills Emerged from board (pencil&paper) role playing games Usually science fiction or fantasy setting Titles: Ultima, Diablo, …
Genres ULTIMA 1 1980 Written in basic 3000 lines of code Memory takes less than one texture in current version…
Genres Simulation Aim to simulate a specific activity (e.g. flying an airplane / running a company) as realistically as possible Usually time consuming to play, huge manuals etc. Titles: Little Comp. People, MS Flight Sim., The Sims, Medieval,Warcraft,… The SIMS is the most popular game ever !
Genres Little Computer People Activision, 1985, C64
Genres Requirements of Genres: Hardware Computational power Graphical abilities (color, resolution) Graphic. comp. Power (Co-processing graphic cards) Memory Sound Input / output devices
Genres Software AI Physical Modelling Sophisticated Data Structures
Genres Design Story Playability User Interface Realism
Genres Comp. power Graphic. abilities Graphic. Comp. power Memory Sound Special I/O devices AI Physical Modelling Sophisticated Data Structures Story User Interface Realism XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXX XXXXXXX? XXXXX XXXXXXX? XXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX? PLAYABILITY AD T AD G AD A Ed u FI G H T FP S MMOGMMOG PL A T F PU Z Z L E RA C I N G RP G FX D S H SI M SP O R T S ST R A T TR A D
Genres Which genre is the easiest to design and program ?
Game Industry Some numbers out of the world of the Game Industry (source: www.gamasutra.com)
Game Industry Mission Elevator Publisher: Magic Bytes Number of full-time developers: 0 Number of part-time developers: 3 Length of development: 14 months Release date: 1985 Target platform: Amstrad CPC, C64 Development hardware: Amstrad CPC, C64 Development software used: Paper and Pencil, selfmade assembling help, some BASIC tools Project size: 48kB Budget: 10.000$ (for conversion to diff. Systems)
Game Industry Grand Monster Slam Publisher: Magic Bytes/Rainbow Arts Number of full-time developers: 6 Number of part-time developers: 1 Length of development: 8 months Release date: 1989 Target platform: AMIGA, ATARI ST, C64 Development hardware: proprietary: ATARI ST connected to AMIGA Development software used: Graphic Tools, SEKA Assembler Project size: 4MB Budget: 100.000$
Game Industry SPLINTER CELL Publisher: Ubi Soft Number of full-time developers: 76 Number of contractors:18 Length of development: 5 months Release date: March 28, 2003 Target platform: PlayStation 2 Development hardware: PS2 dev tools, PCs avg. Athlon dual 1800+ Development software used: Unreal Warfare, Code Warrior, 3D Max, Photoshop, Ubi's animation tools, Optpix, Microsoft Visual SourceSafe Project size: 3.47GB Budget: ?
Game Industry STAR WARS: Rogue Leader Publisher: Lucas Arts Entertainment Number of full-time developers: 30 Number of contractors: 2 Estimated budget: $3.5 million Length of development: 9 months Release date: November 8, 2001 Platform: Nintendo Gamecube Development hardware used: GDEV & 1GHz PC, running Windows 2000 Development software used: SN Systems for Gamecube, Slickedit, Maya Notable technologies: MusyX 2.0 Project size: 14.2MB of source in 859 files, in- game source data 6.4GB in 10,075 files
DIABLO 2 Publisher: Blizzard Entertainment Full-Time Developers: 40 Length of Development: 3 years. Release Date: June 28, 2000. Platforms: PC and Macintosh. Hardware Used: Typical programmer workstation: 500 MHz Pentium II running Windows NT with 128MB RAM and 9GB hard drive. Typical artist workstation: dual 500 MHz Pentium IIs running Windows NT with 256MB RAM and 14GB hard drive. Software Used: 3D Studio Max, Photoshop, Microsoft Developer Studio/Visual Studio and SourceSafe Game Industry
DIABLO 2 From “Diablo2: what went wrong”: (http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20001025/schaefer_03.htm) “We developed the original Diablo with almost no proprietary tools at all. We cut out all the background tiles by hand and used commercial software to process the character art. Spells and monsters were balanced by verbal estimates ("Hey, lets make the lightning about ten percent weaker."). Diablo II's vastly increased scale required much better tools, and we made some, but not enough. “
Game Industry Salary Survey 2003 (from GAME DEVELOPER Magazine) websource:http://www.gamasutra.com/features/20040211/olsen_01.shtml Questioning among GAME DEVELOPER subscribers About 2750 responses used for survey Excluded: 300.000$