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Non-Responsive Teaching Interactions Pre-Service Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Non-Responsive Teaching Interactions Pre-Service Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-Responsive Teaching Interactions Pre-Service Workshop

2 Non- Responsive Teaching The process of de- escalating a youth, through praising approximations, until they once again respond to corrective teaching.

3 Examples of Non- Responsive Behavior rolling eyes making faces sighing slouching crying arguing sarcasm not giving eye contact tapping foot / pen negative facial expressions ignoring instructions

4 Antecedents to Non- Responsive Behavior A youth earns a consequence A youth is given feedback A youth is given an instruction they do not like A youth is given a “no” answer

5 Teaching to Non - Responsive Behavior OPTION 1 Prompt or instruct the youth to stop the behavior. If the youth complies with the request, praise the youth and return to the original issue. OPTION 2 The youth earns an additional for not accepting the consequence.

6 Factors to Consider Intensity of Behavior  looking away vs. arguing Frequency of Behavior  Is the behavior a consistent problem?  Have you prompted them before? Intent of Behavior  anger vs. ADHD

7 Praising Approximations If a youth approximates ANY correct behavior, give a praise statement then restate the instruction. 1 st Instruction Praise 2 nd Instruction

8 Praising Approximations Example 1 st Instruction: A youth is told to have a seat on the couch. She walks toward the couch, but does not sit down. Praise: “Good job walking toward the couch...” 2 nd Instruction: “What you need to do next is sit down.”

9 Non-Responsive Teaching Original Issue (-2000) Youth doesn’t accept Consequence (-2000) Accepting Consequence 1 st Instruction Praise Approximation 2 nd Instruction Consequence (-5000) Follow Instructions

10 Non-Responsive Teaching Consequence (-5000) Follow Instructions Instruction Praise / Empathy Instruction Consequence (-10,000) Follow Instructions

11 Non-Responsive Teaching Consequence (-10,000) Follow Instructions Statement of Seriousness Prompt to Utilize Self Control 5-Second Rule Instruction Praise /Empathy Instruction

12 Non-Responsive Teaching Consequence (-50,000) Follow Instructions The youth is now out-of- instructional control and Intensive Teaching begins

13 Non-Responsive Teaching Cycle Initial consequence Accepting consequences First Instruction Praise Approx/ Empathy Second Instruction Praise Approx/ Empathy Increase Consequences: 5,000, 10,000 and 50,000

14 5 Second Rule A five second rule is a statement that should be preventively taught to all of the youth, both individually and as a group in family meeting. When family teacher states “ five second rule” this is an indication to all in the home that they have 5 seconds to clear the room and go to an assigned location, usually their rooms. Rationals: keeps youth safe, prevents negative attention seeking, allows family teachers to deal with one issue at a time and decreases the likeliness that multiple youth will be non-responsive.

15 Use of Quality Component s in Non- Responsive Teaching Stay calm Use relaxed and positive voice tone Humor if appropriate Use proximity when appropriate Keep exit ways open and do not back youth into a corner or tower over youth * By staying calm and teaching, you remain in control and it actually helps the youth feel safer.

16 * Tips to Prevent Non-Responsive Behaviors 1. Daily Role Plays with youth 2. Preventive teaching or preventive prompt prior to doing corrective teaching, reminding the youth and letting them practice their skills.  “Do you remember the steps to accepting consequences? Why don’t we practice them and you can earn some positive points….” 3. Family Meetings on rules in the home 4. One-on- one time with youth allowing for relationship development. 5. Consistent tolerance levels so the youth is not “surprised” when taught to. 6. Frequent and consistent praise for accepting feedback and consequences. 7. Low tolerance levels for “punishing behaviors”. What are those?

17 Let’s Practice! Example: Youth is asked to change into more appropriate clothing for school, youth refuses. The youth earns the INITIAL CONSEQUENCE for not ACCEPTING FEEDBACK and then an additional consequence for ACCEPTING CONSQUENCES and then NON-RESPONSIVE TEACHING. until youth accepts consequences or reaches -50,000 pts.

18 RESOURCES

19 Non-Responsive/ Intensive Teaching When grossly inappropriate behaviors do occur under intense emotion, the Family teacher would become involved in non- responsive or intensive teaching. It is the degree of disruptiveness of the behavior that discriminates "intensive teaching" from “nonresponsive teaching." For instance, a youth periodically losing eye contact or frowning when being told that he cannot go to a play tonight because of homework assignments would rarely lead to intensive teaching. As long as the youth made efforts to look at you and stop frowning when prompted, the issue would be an example of nonresponsive teaching. If, however, the youth defiantly refused to look at you, raised his voice, and said loudly, "I'm going anyway," an intensive teaching interaction could occur.

20 One obvious advantage of a preventive teaching strategy is that both you and the youth are more likely to succeed. The youth is more likely to follow your instructions appropriately when his/her emotions are not intense and you will have opportunities to praise and give positive consequences for developing his/her skill level. With an emphasis on prevention, not only is success more likely, but the relationship with the youth is more likely to be a mutually positive, pleasant one.

21 There are four basic circumstances under which intensive teaching occurs: 1. The timid youth: When a youth engages in many behaviors which are not particularly unpleasant for others, but unproductive and disruptive for him/herself when he/she is angry, we say that he/she is "timid" or "afraid to express his anger." A timid youth might spend considerable time alone, talk very softly with one word answers or not at all, gaze downwards, and repeatedly say "nothing is wrong." Naturally, whenever such behaviors occur, Family Teachers would want to do a reactive or nonresponsive teaching interaction. However, when the behaviors become extended and disruptive for the youth in his/her daily life, Family Teachers might have a lengthy or intensive interaction.

22 2.The sarcastic youth: The sarcastic youth obviously is angry and expresses it by rolling his/her eyes, scowling, mumbling under his/her breath and particularly by his/her tone of voice. Frequently, he/she will carry out the task in response to an instruction, but his/her voice is very unpleasant and conveys obvious intent to upset those around him/her. When this voice tone becomes disruptive to others and the youth does not follow instructions to speak more pleasantly, intensive teaching situations might arise.

23 3. The irrationally angry youth: The irrationally angry youth usually has a very obvious, specific incident which provokes his/her anger. However, his/her expression is "irrational" or "out of control" because he/she talks loudly, walks about the room, curses, or perhaps even slaps or hits at things. He/she may make verbal threats to Family Teachers or others, but there are no actual attempts to hit, shove, or throw objects that have an obvious attempt to injure and intimidate. Frequently the youth will make statements such as "Why should I?" or "It's not fair"" or It's not my fault" in a loud tone of voice. When these behaviors persist and instructions to tone down, stop cursing, stop hitting at objects, etc. are not followed by immediate attempts at control, intensive teaching might occur.

24 4.The belligerent youth: The behavior that marks the belligerent youth as different from the angry and sarcastic youth is the obvious attempt to harm or intimidate a person. He/she may be angry about a specific incident, but makes threats to harm or injure someone and engages in behavior that shows the threat might be acted upon by him/her. For example, not only does the youth say ""I ought to punch you out" but he/she raises his/her fist and moves toward you or pushes at you. It is the behaviors that demonstrate a strong potential for physical harm that differentiate this type of situation. As such, any belligerent behaviors generate intensive teaching or removal of yourself or others from the situation.

25 In working with the "timid" youth, the following guidelines are helpful: 1. Work alone: Do the teaching in your office, his/her room or wherever privacy is assured. 2. Empathize: Let your youth, know that you understand he/she has difficulty expressing emotions. Say "I am concerned" and "I want to teach you ways to express yourself that can help you." Sit or stand close to the youth, touch him/her, gently encourage his/her expression of feelings. 3. Be direct: Tell the youth you know he/she is angry. It is usually unproductive to ask "why" or "if" he/she is angry (e.g. "I know you are angry about the rule change at Family Meeting.") 4.Describe the inappropriate behavior: Specifically point out that the youth is silent, holding his/her head and eyes down, slumped posture, etc. (e.g. "Since Family Meeting, you have been in your room alone. Now you are silent and slumped in your chair.") 5. State the goals: Let the youth know specifically that he/she needs to look up, sit straight, speak clearly. Demonstrating these behaviors can help the youth.

26 6. Praise improvement: As soon as he/she follows any instructions, immediately praise and encourage these attempts (e.g. "That's good, you are_ looking at me.") 7. Give rationales. Let the youth know the personal benefit for learning appropriate expressions. Frequently, the "timid“ youth can feel better by expressing what bothers him/her – and of course, solve the difficulty more readily. 8. Have the youth practice with you: Role playing appropriate expressions- particularly what to say - can be very helpful. The timid youth needs to practice how to bring up his/her concerns to gain confidence (e.g. "John, I'd like you to say something like 'I want to talk about the rule we changed at Family Meeting.") Praise the youth's efforts in practicing the new skills. 9. Prompt practice in the situation itself: Prompt the youth to bring up his/her concern to the person with whom he/she is angry. For instance, if he/she is upset about a rule changed at Family Meeting, teach him/her how to bring up concerns and prompt him/her to do this at the next conference. Reward efforts to improve by praise and consequences. When the youth is truly timid (and not defiant or resistive) negative consequences are rarely given until teaching, praise, and encouragement have proven to have no positive effects on expressing him/herself more directly.

27 9.Counsel: It is very important to follow up any intensive teaching encounter where negative consequences are given with a counseling session. It is important in maintaining a' relationship with a youth to tell the youth again that you cons equated him/her due to your concern that he/she learn appropriate expression of emotion. It is also a good time for the two of you to have pleasant conversations. If the youth obviously intends to try and work on the issue/ concentrate on this recovery. The purpose of the counseling should be directed on building the relationship - not rehashing the issue dealt with in intensive teaching. 10.Follow up: Teach the youth how not to be sarcastic and how to engage in rational conversation during times when he/she is not emotional. Success is more likely to occur when he/she is not upset about some specific incident. In working with the "irrationally angry youth," the behaviors are very similar to those of the sarcastic youth. The emphasis here is on teaching rational conversation components to the youth. As with the sarcastic youth, the "intensive" encounter should be followed up by counseling either immediately or whenever the youth and you are best able to handle a counseling session. General guidelines would be as follows:

28 1. Stay calm: Sit or stand close to the youth, use a pleasant tone of voice and concern should be employed. If the youth walks angrily about, you may want to "track" by remaining within several feet of him/her. 2. Empathize:Tell him/her it's "OK" to be angry, but that he/she needs to engage in rational conversation. 3. Specify the inappropriate behaviors: Give specific instructions to stop walking about, cursing, slamming doors, etc. Test instructional control by giving brief, specific instructions. 4. Give brief time limit: Specify a brief period of time in which the youth should follow your instructions to control voice tones, cursing, etc. For example, "John, "I'll have to ask this to stop within one minute. Now settle down and stop cursing." Stay with the youth as the behavior needs to be controlled in your presence. 5. Set large and meaningful consequences: Let the youth know what specific consequences will occur if the disruptive behaviors continue. "John, in one minute you will be fined 50,000 points if you keep shouting."

29 The behaviors and techniques in working with the sarcastic youth are somewhat different. Many of the components (specificity, giving rationales, praising improvements, etc.) are the same. The difference lies in utilizing negative consequences if the youth does not come under instructional control. The sarcastic voice tone and limit testing that occur (joking about instructions, etc.) may need negative cons equation before the youth responds appropriately. Some helpful guidelines are listed here: 1. Be calm: Use a pleasant voice tone, sit or stand close to the youth and let him/her know you are concerned. Be pleasant but not happy. For example, you might say to the youth, "I am concerned that you learn to follow instructions without mocking. Mocking will get you in trouble with teachers." 2. Be empathic: Say you understand he/she is upset and that everyone gets mad, but that he/she needs to express him/herself differently. Tell him/her it's OK to be angry. 3. Don't ask "if" or "why": Be direct. Tell him/her you know he/she is upset. Asking ""if" and "why" the youth is upset can only sidetrack you from the issue of his/her sarcastic behaviors. 4. Statethe goals: Be specific in pointing out which appropriate behaviors he/she needs to learn when angry. For example, ""John, instead of sarcastically saying, 'If you say so,' when I say you are angry, I'd like you to say 'I'm angry about the rule changed at Family Meeting.'" Demonstrating the appropriate behaviors can help out here.

30 6.Set a limit: Give the youth specific instructions such as "please stop laughing" or "look at me.." If the instructions are not followed, tell the youth that one more sarcastic laugh or one more minute of sarcastic silence (if severe) will earn him/her negative consequences. Make the consequences large and meaningful e.g. "50,000 points for one more sarcastic laugh," or "'you will lose tonight's privileges if you do not begin talking about the Family Meeting in the next minute." 7.Cons equate immediately: Once the limit has been reached (one more laugh or one more minute of silence), give the negative consequence immediately. To continue to give consequences when he/she is out of control is unproductive and unfair. Make the consequence large enough to suit the severity of the behavior to begin with, and don't increase them. If consequences don't change the behavior, then it is up to you to control it by instructions and specific praise for improvement." 8.Praise improvement immediately: Any instructions that are followed should be immediately praised. If the youth improves quickly, you might have him/her earn back part of the negative consequence. Reward and encourage efforts to improve his/her tone of voice, laughter, etc.

31 6. Praise improvement: As soon as he/she follows any instructions, immediately praise and encourage these attempts (e.g. "That's good, you are_ looking at me.") 7. Give rationales. Let the youth know the personal benefit for learning appropriate expressions. Frequently, the "timid“ youth can feel better by expressing what bothers him/her – and of course, solve the difficulty more readily. 8. Have the youth practice with you: Role playing appropriate expressions- particularly what to say - can be very helpful. The timid youth needs to practice how to bring up his/her concerns to gain confidence (e.g. "John, I'd like you to say something like 'I want to talk about the rule we changed at Family Meeting.") Praise the youth's efforts in practicing the new skills. 9. Prompt practice in the situation itself: Prompt the youth to bring up his/her concern to the person with whom he/she is angry. For instance, if he/she is upset about a rule changed at Family Meeting, teach him/her how to bring up concerns and prompt him/her to do this at the next conference. Reward efforts to improve by praise and consequences. When the youth is truly timid (and not defiant or resistive) negative consequences are rarely given until teaching, praise, and encouragement have proven to have no positive effects on expressing him/herself more directly.

32 9.Counsel: It is very important to follow up any intensive teaching encounter where negative consequences are given with a counseling session. It is important in maintaining a' relationship with a youth to tell the youth again that you cons equated him/her due to your concern that he/she learn appropriate expression of emotion. It is also a good time for the two of you to have pleasant conversations. If the youth obviously intends to try and work on the issue/ concentrate on this recovery. The purpose of the counseling should be directed on building the relationship - not rehashing the issue dealt with in intensive teaching. 10.Follow up: Teach the youth how not to be sarcastic and how to engage in rational conversation during times when he/she is not emotional. Success is more likely to occur when he/she is not upset about some specific incident. In working with the "irrationally angry youth," the behaviors are very similar to those of the sarcastic youth. The emphasis here is on teaching rational conversation components to the youth. As with the sarcastic youth, the "intensive" encounter should be followed up by counseling either immediately or whenever the youth and you are best able to handle a counseling session. General guidelines would be as follows:

33 1. Stay calm: Sit or stand close to the youth, use a pleasant tone of voice and concern should be employed. If the youth walks angrily about, you may want to "track" by remaining within several feet of him/her. 2. Empathize:Tell him/her it's "OK" to be angry, but that he/she needs to engage in rational conversation. 3. Specify the inappropriate behaviors: Give specific instructions to stop walking about, cursing, slamming doors, etc. Test instructional control by giving brief, specific instructions. 4. Give brief time limit: Specify a brief period of time in which the youth should follow your instructions to control voice tones, cursing, etc. For example, "John, "I'll have to ask this to stop within one minute. Now settle down and stop cursing." Stay with the youth as the behavior needs to be controlled in your presence. 5. Set large and meaningful consequences: Let the youth know what specific consequences will occur if the disruptive behaviors continue. "John, in one minute you will be fined 50,000 points if you keep shouting."

34 6. Give the consequences: When the limit has been reached, give the negative consequences. Again test for control. If his/her behavior does not change, rely on yourself. You cannot rely on anyone else to control the youth. Ultimately, it is your instructions and praise which you must rely on. 7. Review the components of rational conversation: This continually lets the youth know what behavior. you expect. 8. Praise improvement: Praise any instructions that are approximated.. As the youth obviously comes under control, you probably will want to have him/her earn back part of the negative consequences. Praise all rational conversation components employed. 9. Expect improvement - not perfection: Praise improvement. Don't expect the youth to be completely happy - merely under control and as pleasant as possible. 10. Counsel: Again, follow up the incident with a counseling session. Review your concern that the youth learn to control his/her behavior when angry. Have as pleasant a session as possible. 11. Follow-up: Do follow up teaching on how to appropriately express him/herself. Teach the youth rational conversation components when he/she is not emotional.

35 Finally, the most extreme situation in which an intensive teaching interaction might occur is when the youth is "belligerent" - that is making physical threats and making gestures such as forming a fist, or pushing someone that indicates that he/she might follow up on the threats. Any time a youth acts on a physical threat, remove yourself from the situation unless you are comfortable that the situation can be controlled. The voluntary nature of. Utah Girls' Village prohibits the use of any physical restraint - except to protect the well-being of the youth or yourself. The following guidelines apply to working in situations where the youth is belligerent.

36 1. Be calm: Remaining calm in voice and appearance can help calm the youth. Remain calm and pleasant. Assess the situation. Keep in mind that situations in which the youth becomes belligerent or physically aggressive are extremely rare. 2. Think about removing yourself from the encounter: If-physical force is likely to occur, you may choose to leave.Many female Family Teachers may choose to get the male Family Teacher. This decision is not made due to the female's inability to control the youth, but rather because of the youth's prior history in dealing with females. Some youth have never experienced a female attempting to control strong outbursts and will react unpredictably. Whether you choose to stay or leave, keep in mind that everyone loses out if a physical encounter takes place. Both parties risk injury and the youth may face a possible assault charge if he/she physically attacks a Family Teacher.

37 3.Use minimal guidance: Should the youth touch you, push you or strike out, use the minimal force necessary to stop this behavior. Simultaneously instruct him/her to "stop pushing" or "remove his hands." If the youth grabs you, manually remove his/her hands as gently as possible. 4. Bring un the issue of the assault charge: Inform the youth that an assault charge can be filed against him/her should he/she initiate physical aggression. It is fair to inform him/her of this real and possible consequence. 5. Specifically describe inappropriate behaviors: As with the angry youth, specifically give instructions on which behaviors you wish him/her to stop. For instance, "Remove your hands, please stop pushing, unclench your fist, etc." Your goal is to prevent the youth from harming anyone - so concentrate on the behaviors that are related to physical aggression. You can deal with the more subtle behaviors later.

38 6. Set a time limit: Specify a time limit within which you wish him/her to stop the belligerent behaviors. Realize that if a situation where physical danger is actually a real threat, ordinary consequences are potentially fruitless. Your time limit then may be related to calling for assistance from your consultant or program director, other Family Teachers, security officers or removing yourself. For instance, "John, if you push me again, I will have no recourse but to contact the program director." Equally important to realize here is Family Teachers want to avoid calling any outside help when the situation can be handled by themselves. Physically aggressive situations are potentially a. time to call for outside assistance. 7. Praise improvement immediately: As soon as a youth follows instructions to "stop pushing," "lower your voice," "unclench your fist," etc., praise the behavior immediately. 8. Set the goal rational-conversation: Give repeated instructions to sit down, use a calm voice tone, stop cussing, etc. Praise each approximation to following these instructions.

39 9. Cons equate after the youth calms: The goals in dealing with the aggressive youth is to prevent aggression. After danger of physical aggression has passed, the Family Teacher naturally must employ some meaningful negative consequence. Consequences such as sub-systems are employed frequently. 10. Counsel: When both parties have calmed, have a follow-up counseling session to calmly go over the incident. Spend particular time in expressing concern that there not be a re­occurrence. Increase the amount of counseling with a youth after a major incident. Spending more time in teaching appropriate expressions and building your relationship is important. Daily counseling sessions usually follow up a major incident. 11. Call your consultant: For a major incident such as a physical assault, always inform the consultant who will inform the program director. You will want support and assistance after an outburst of a serious nature. 12. Follow-up: Again, teach the youth the basic skills of instruction following, responding to "no," accepting criticism, disagreeing appropriately, and rational conversation. Do preventive teaching after an outburst so that another does not occur.

40 Again, Prevention As stressed initially, preventive teaching is the key in dealing with intensive teaching situations. Once an outburst occurs, Family Teachers have to rely basically on the youth's reasonableness and the teaching that has occurred prior to the encounter to gain control. There are really no guaranteed methods for controlling situations once they occur. It is helpful to: 1. Teach basic skills every day - particularly to new youth. 2. Inform youth prior to having encounters what procedures should occur. For instance, establish a rule that everyone should go to their rooms in the event of an intensive teaching encounter; you want to work alone with the youth who is involved.

41 3. Discuss. the consequences of encounters at Family Meeting should they occur. Let all the youth know that blow ups receive heavy consequences. They can learn from one another's experience. 4. Praise improvement. Blow ups rarely occur where relations are very sound and youth experience appreciation for progress. 5. Cue the youth. Should a youth have a short fuse, be sarcastic or aggressive, cue him/her ahead of time when an emotional situation is going to be discussed. Let him/her know that he will be rewarded for success. For example, "John, I need to talk to you about something potentially upsetting. I'm not asking you to like it, but I would ask you to maintain rational conversation skills. Sometimes you curse, talk loudly and stomp off. Try to stay seated, look at me and not talk until I'm finished. OK? We need to discuss a large negative consequence, but you can earn part of it back immediately by maintaining rational conversation." Cueing the youth can help the youth to learn appropriate behaviors under intensely emotional situations.

42 Non-Responsive Teaching Interactions Pre-Service Workshop This training presentation is available for download at: © 2007 Utah Youth Village.


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