Presentation on theme: "The First Sultans Iltutmish, Balban, and Ala-ud-din Khilji."— Presentation transcript:
The First Sultans Iltutmish, Balban, and Ala-ud-din Khilji
Ilbari Rule Long gap of almost 150 years between Mahmud and the Ilbaris Next campaign does not occur until the late 12 th Century under Muhammad Ghori The renewed strength of the Rajputs and Indian tribes is clearly demonstrated in their strong opposition of Muhammad Ghori’s armies
Muiz-ud-din Mohamad Ghori, 1173- 1206 Multan campaign—1175-8 Lahore—1179-86, three attempts First Battle of Tarrain—1190 Finally, Victory at the Second Battle of Tarrain, 1192—Why?
After Ghuri’s death Empire divided between three rival factions led by Yilduz, Aibak, and Qabacha. Aibak only retains central portions around Delhi. The remaining Turkish amirs and maliks resent the elevation of one of their own Indigenous chiefs (Thakurs, Rais, Rajas) also rebel
Aibak’s short Rule Consolidates area around Delhi, lays basics of administration, using Iqtas Builds alliances with powerful Chehelgans, but problems continue Dies prematurely in a polo accident in 1210 Sultanate remains very unstable
Iltutmish (1210-1236) The Iron fist in the velvet glove Brought to power through the influence of a clique of Turkish nobles, spends the majority of his reign trying to break their grip over power Realizes the need to cultivate a power base spread through different social groups Also tries to create a court culture to subtly create obvious differences in court between the ruler and the nobility—Role of ruler as patron
Iltutmish’s military strategies Keep buffer states in the northwest as a barrier against Mongols until 1227 when Chingiz Khan dies –Avoids supporting Khwarzim Shahs or Yilduz –1228 Multan and Sind annexed Also adds Eastern and Southern fronts –1225-1229 direct control over Bengal –1226-1228 Rajasthan –1231-1235 Central India, inc. Gwalior, Malwa
Iltutmish’s Strategies Advantages to a “diplomatic” approach to different groups—chehelgan, Sufis, local magnates, Mongols Iqta reforms—those under khalisa increased How successful was Iltutmish in his efforts to reform? –Moderate, has the first long stable rule –Power of Chehelgan not completely diluted –Problems with the Iqta persist –More groups in Sultanate society, however, begin to have power and act as a counterbalance to the Chehelgan Razia’s rule (1236-1240)—how to interpret it?
Some Problems of Ilbari rule –Problems with the Iqta system, attempts to integrate local magnates (Rais)in administration—too little manpower available among Turks –Factionalism between the Turkish Chehelgan, useful and not –The position of the Sultan, in relation to Amirs, Sufi Sheikhs (Who really has authority in the eyes of the people?) –The place of Islam within courtly circles—historical claims of the court chronicles v. probable reality In the early period power is limited to cities such as Delhi and Lahore Power is shared among the Turkish Chehelgan families, but alternative types of social and religious influence is also exercised by religious figures (Hindu and Muslim), local chiefs
Balban Razia’s short reign and the confusion that follows Indirect rule 1246-66, Nasir ud-din Sultan –has sultan marry his daughter, asks for title of Ulugh Khan –1253 failed attempt by N. Khan reveals division amongst chehelgan favored Balban –Military strength squandered as chehelgan and Mongal threats grow –1266 Nasir ud-din Khan poisoned, Balban becomes Sultan Direct Rule 1266-87 Longest reign of early sultanate rulers (41 years)
Direct Rule 1266-87 Focus on Delhi and Doab –Settlement of garrison towns, different ethnic groups, particularly Afghans recruited –Increased incentives to cultivators, state help with deforestation, clearing of roads, encouraging trade –Centralized regiments created to counter reliance on chehelgani troops –Iqtas made non-hereditary, reduced in size
Balban cont. Intelligence networks expanded, scrutiny over chehelgan alliances and iqta management increases Authors his own book on courtly rule, creates and islamic veneer, but favors rules from pre-Islamic Persia Courtly protocol prioritizes rules from ancient Persia –Formalized courtly etiquette treats ruler as most important, God’s shadow on earth –Kissing the ground in front of the ruler, bowing, prohibitions of turning back to ruler –Access to kings and princes limited –Royal sons and grandsons given Persianized names –Lots of pomp and ceremony, including increased consumption of luxury goods at court
Impact of Balban Economy stabilizes, market towns increase in number— due to increased migration from Afghanistan and Persia Mongols contained Power of chehelgan reduced, through iqta reform and garrison towns, but they become more hostile to centralized rule Balban’s severe punishments and killings greatly reduce the number of qualified officers and generals, independent action discouraged and sycophancy encouraged No competent successor remains when Mohammad, the older son is dies in 1285.
Balban’s Family Balban, d. 1287 Mohamamd d. 1285 KayKhusraw killed after Balban’s death in 1287 Bughra Khan (gov. of Bengal) Kayqubad (Emperor till 1289 Deposed for son)
Problems of succession Turkish custom did not favor primogeniture The nobility had some say in the selection of the next ruler if sultan did not appoint an heir Balban’s attempt to create a succession failed –Younger son Bughra Khan resented and feared his father since 1275 events in Bengal –Muhammad’s son Kaykhusrau was designated heir after Mohammad’s death in 1285 but opposed by amirs –Bughra Khan’s son Kayqabad and his son Kayumars both had short reigns while the chehelgan attempted to use them as puppet rulers, Bughra stayed far away from Delhi