Presentation on theme: "Iltutmish, Balban, and Ala-ud-din Khilji"— Presentation transcript:
1 Iltutmish, Balban, and Ala-ud-din Khilji The First SultansIltutmish, Balban, and Ala-ud-din Khilji
2 Ilbari RuleLong gap of almost 150 years between Mahmud and the IlbarisNext campaign does not occur until the late 12th Century under Muhammad GhoriThe renewed strength of the Rajputs and Indian tribes is clearly demonstrated in their strong opposition of Muhammad Ghori’s armies
4 Muiz-ud-din Mohamad Ghori, 1173-1206 Multan campaign—1175-8Lahore— , three attemptsFirst Battle of Tarrain—1190Finally, Victory at the Second Battle of Tarrain, 1192—Why?
5 After Ghuri’s deathEmpire divided between three rival factions led by Yilduz, Aibak, and Qabacha. Aibak only retains central portions around Delhi.The remaining Turkish amirs and maliks resent the elevation of one of their ownIndigenous chiefs (Thakurs, Rais, Rajas) also rebel
6 Aibak’s short RuleConsolidates area around Delhi, lays basics of administration, using IqtasBuilds alliances with powerful Chehelgans, but problems continueDies prematurely in a polo accident in 1210Sultanate remains very unstable
7 Iltutmish (1210-1236) The Iron fist in the velvet glove Brought to power through the influence of a clique of Turkish nobles, spends the majority of his reign trying to break their grip over powerRealizes the need to cultivate a power base spread through different social groupsAlso tries to create a court culture to subtly create obvious differences in court between the ruler and the nobility—Role of ruler as patron
8 Iltutmish’s military strategies Keep buffer states in the northwest as a barrier against Mongols until 1227 when Chingiz Khan diesAvoids supporting Khwarzim Shahs or Yilduz1228 Multan and Sind annexedAlso adds Eastern and Southern frontsdirect control over BengalRajasthanCentral India, inc. Gwalior, Malwa
10 Iltutmish’s Strategies Advantages to a “diplomatic” approach to different groups—chehelgan, Sufis, local magnates, MongolsIqta reforms—those under khalisa increasedHow successful was Iltutmish in his efforts to reform?Moderate, has the first long stable rulePower of Chehelgan not completely dilutedProblems with the Iqta persistMore groups in Sultanate society, however, begin to have power and act as a counterbalance to the ChehelganRazia’s rule ( )—how to interpret it?
11 Some Problems of Ilbari rule Problems with the Iqta system, attempts to integrate local magnates (Rais)in administration—too little manpower available among TurksFactionalism between the Turkish Chehelgan, useful and notThe position of the Sultan, in relation to Amirs, Sufi Sheikhs (Who really has authority in the eyes of the people?)The place of Islam within courtly circles—historical claims of the court chronicles v. probable realityIn the early period power is limited to cities such as Delhi and LahorePower is shared among the Turkish Chehelgan families, but alternative types of social and religious influence is also exercised by religious figures (Hindu and Muslim), local chiefs
12 Balban Razia’s short reign and the confusion that follows Indirect rule , Nasir ud-din Sultanhas sultan marry his daughter, asks for title of Ulugh Khan1253 failed attempt by N. Khan reveals division amongst chehelgan favored BalbanMilitary strength squandered as chehelgan and Mongal threats grow1266 Nasir ud-din Khan poisoned, Balban becomes SultanDirect RuleLongest reign of early sultanate rulers (41 years)
13 Direct Rule 1266-87 Focus on Delhi and Doab Settlement of garrison towns, different ethnic groups, particularly Afghans recruitedIncreased incentives to cultivators, state help with deforestation, clearing of roads, encouraging tradeCentralized regiments created to counter reliance on chehelgani troopsIqtas made non-hereditary, reduced in size
14 Balban cont.Intelligence networks expanded, scrutiny over chehelgan alliances and iqta management increasesAuthors his own book on courtly rule, creates and islamic veneer, but favors rules from pre-Islamic PersiaCourtly protocol prioritizes rules from ancient PersiaFormalized courtly etiquette treats ruler as most important, God’s shadow on earthKissing the ground in front of the ruler, bowing, prohibitions of turning back to rulerAccess to kings and princes limitedRoyal sons and grandsons given Persianized namesLots of pomp and ceremony, including increased consumption of luxury goods at court
15 Impact of BalbanEconomy stabilizes, market towns increase in number—due to increased migration from Afghanistan and PersiaMongols containedPower of chehelgan reduced, through iqta reform and garrison towns, but they become more hostile to centralized ruleBalban’s severe punishments and killings greatly reduce the number of qualified officers and generals, independent action discouraged and sycophancy encouragedNo competent successor remains when Mohammad, the older son is dies in 1285.
17 Problems of succession Turkish custom did not favor primogenitureThe nobility had some say in the selection of the next ruler if sultan did not appoint an heirBalban’s attempt to create a succession failedYounger son Bughra Khan resented and feared his father since 1275 events in BengalMuhammad’s son Kaykhusrau was designated heir after Mohammad’s death in 1285 but opposed by amirsBughra Khan’s son Kayqabad and his son Kayumars both had short reigns while the chehelgan attempted to use them as puppet rulers, Bughra stayed far away from Delhi