Presentation on theme: "PACS 2500 Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies Guy Burgess Co-Director Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado UCB 580, University."— Presentation transcript:
The Invisible Hand Adam Smith Constructive Competition
Biological Competition: The Key to Evolution Charles Darwin
The “Invisible Hand” of Politics Democracy with a “small d” indicating the not yet realize promise of a government in a society that is truly “OF THE PEOPLE, BY THE PEOPLE, FOR THE PEOPLE democracy
Conflict: The Engine of Social Learning Basic Conflict Interaction Party A: “Plaintiff” “Things Would Be Better If You’d Change” Party B: “Defendant” “I Do Not Want to Change” Conflict processes are the mechanisms through which society decides whether or not Party B will be compelled to change. Goal Constructive Confrontations NOT Suppression of Conflict Criteria for Assessing Constructiveness Wise Decisions Equity Timeliness Efficiency (Low Transaction Costs) Nonviolent Process Relationship Preservation Stress Reduction
The Big Threat: the “Invisible Fist” of Destructive Competition Destructive conflict dynamics that undermine the benefits of the invisible hand’s constructive conflict.
“Invisible Hand” Threatened by Two Forms of the “Invisible Fist” “Power Over” efforts of tyrants, plutocrats and wannabes to dominate and oppress others The inability of those pursuing an equitable “Power With” vision of society to navigate the many Destructive Conflict Dynamics that threaten such efforts.
The Goal: Push Society Toward the “Invisible Hand” Invisible Hand Invisible Fist The Invisible Hand/Fist Continuum
“Power Over” Threat to the “Invisible Hand” #1 The “Invisible Fist” can throw many “punches” Conquest and Tyranny
“Power Over” Threat to the “Invisible Hand” #2 The “Invisible Fist” can throw many “punches” Machiavellian Tyranny / Plutocracy
Alpha Male Effect “Power Over” Relatively Simple
For Complex, Organic Systems The Medical Model System evolved through processes of natural and social selection Medicine, ecosystems, economies, conflict No Plans Exist — only observational studies of particular (usually troublesome) aspects of the system Injuries and pathologies (also opportunities to increase performance) Focus is on treating as many of the most damaging pathologies as possible while also taking advantage of opportunities (e.g. Olympic training) Treatments include: complete cure, symptomatic relief, “learning to live with” incurable chronic conditions, “terminal” conditions.
Practical Theory Focus “There is nothing so practical as a good theory” Kurt Lewin More adaptable than idiosyncratic case examples.
Backlash Trap The number of "new enemies" created in the process of defeating an "old enemy”
Bitter End Trap Conclusion of a Negotiation Process Are there any power contest alternatives that are likely to give me a better deal? WIN Ballot Initiative WIN Conclusion of a Negotiation Process Are there any power contest alternatives that are likely to give me a better deal? Power Contest Shortcut Bitter End Path Accept Agreement
Posterity Trap Pursuit of short- term greed at the expense of long- term sustainability. Posterity Trap “What has posterity ever done for me?”
Matthew’s Law “To whomsoever hath, to him shall be given” Kenneth Boulding “He Who Has Gets” Trap
Don’t fall into the “Lost Key” trap, Tackle the Tough Problems Machiavellian spoilers “Narrowcast,” “confirmation biased” media The “double-cross” fear/lack of trust problem Non-rational decision- making The “posterity” trap Many others...
Why Conflict Escalates Latent Tensions Overt Conflict Power Struggle Destructive Violence Conflicting interests Disputed rights Unequal power Injured relationships
Why Conflict Escalates Latent Tensions Overt Conflict Power Struggle Destructive Violence No attention No limitation No protection
Catching Conflict Before it Escalates Prevent Resolve Contain Power Struggle Overt Conflict Latent Tensions Destructive Violence
Prevent Sources of Tension Frustrated needs Poor skills Weak relationships Ways to Prevent The Provider The Teacher The Bridge-Builder
Resolve Sources of Conflict Conflicting interests Disputed rights Unequal power Injured relationships Ways to Resolve The Mediator The Arbiter The Equalizer The Healer
Contain Sources of Struggle No attention No limitation No protection Ways to Contain The Witness The Referee The Peacekeeper
Prevent The Provider - The basic roles of the provider are to share resources and knowledge, give others a sense of security, and help ensure that basic human needs are met. The Teacher - Sometimes people fight simply because they know of no other way to react when a need is frustrated and a serious difference arises. The roles of the teacher are to delegitimize violence, teach tolerance, and expose people to practical problemsolving. The Bridge Builder - The basic role of the bridge builder is to bring people together and help establish personal relationships.
Resolve The Equalizer - The central role of the equalizer is to empower the weak and unrepresented so that they can negotiate a fair and satisfactory resolution. This involves helping to bring the powerful to the table, building collaborative democracy, and supporting nonviolent action. The Mediator - The central roles of the mediator are to bring the parties to the table, facilitate communication, and help people to search for a solution. The Arbiter - Whereas a mediator can only suggest a solution, this person can decide what is right. Resolving disputes, promoting justice, and encouraging negotiation are the arbiter's central roles. The Healer - The role of the healer is to help parties overcome their feelings of anger, fear, humiliation, insecurity, and grief. This includes listening to people's grievances, acknowledging hurt feelings, and encouraging parties to apologize and make reparations.
Contain The Witness - The witness watches out for early warning signals, goes on patrol and reports violent incidents, and calls for the attention of other community members. The Referee - The referee establishes rules for fair fighting, takes away dangerous weapons, and strengthens defenses. The Peacekeeper - The central role of the peacekeeper is to provide protection. This includes interposing between parties, enforcing the peace, and preempting violence before it starts.
The Fitzduff Debate Peace/Justice Movement Fight the System Pacifism – Violence never acceptable Justpeace – “If you want Peace fight for Justice” Progressive Liberal Base Favors the Department of Peace Advocates for the Culture of Peace Peace Work Work Within The System (Including The Military) Violence Sometimes Necessary Justice Not A Precondition For Peace – Inverted Clauswitz Bi-partisan Favors The United States Institute Of Peace Cultivates Peaceful Aspects Of All Cultures
Peace Workers Work within the system Peace Movement Challenge the system