2First AdhesivesThe first adhesives were natural gums and other plant resins or saps. It was believed that the Sumerian people were the first to use it until it was discovered that Neanderthals as far back as 50,000 years made adhesives from birch bark
3Animal Protein Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesBlood, proteinSolid and partially driedwhole blood; dark red toblack bondlineMixed with coldwater, lime,caustic soda, andother chemi-cals; applied at room temperature;pressed either at room tempera-ture or 120oC (250F)and higherHigh dry strength; moderateresistance to water anddamp atmosphere and tomicroorganismsInterior-type softwoodplywood, some times incombination with soybeanadhesive; mostly replacedby phenolic adhesive
4Animal ProteinA natural animal hide glue made from pure animal protein which has been reconstituted into a cake form to make for a more easily dissolving form of hide glue than typical granules. Excellent adhesive strength for gluing difficult surfaces, and removable with heat or steam
5Casein ProteinNatural adhesives have many of the same properties that chemical and synthetic adhesives have. Some natural adhesives are quite strong, whilst others are incredibly flexible. Some are waterproof, whilst others are soluble in water. Some are ideal for delicate jobs which require a level of invisibility of the adhesive, whilst others can be used in the construction of large or heavy items of furniture.
6Casein Protein Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesCasein, proteinPowder with addedchemicals; white to tanbondlineMixed with water; applied andpressed at room temperatureHigh dry strength; moderateresistance to water, dampatmospheres, and interme-diate temperatures; notsuitable for exterior usesInterior doors; discontinueduse in laminated timbers
8Many new adhesives are based on plastic compounds, they have advantages and disadvantages Plastics can be classified in many ways, but most commonly by their polymer backbone (polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, and other acrylics, silicones, polyurethanes, etc.).Other classifications include thermoplastic, thermoset, elastomer, engineering plastic, addition or condensation or polyaddition (depending on polymerization method used).
9Polyvinyl Acetate emulsion TypeForm and colorPreparation and applicationStrength propertiesTypical usesCross-linkablepolyvinyl acetateemulsionLiquid, similar to polyvinylacetate emulsions butincludes copolymerscapable of cross-linkingwith a separate catalyst;white to tan with colorlessbondlineLiquid emulsion mixed withcatalyst; cure at room tempera-ture or at elevated temperature inhot press and radio-frequencypressHigh dry strength; improvedresistance to moisture andelevated temperatures,particularly long-termperformance in moistenvironmentInterior and exterior doors;moulding and architecturalwoodwork; cellulosicoverlays
10polyvinyl acetate emulsion As an emulsion in water, PVA is sold as an adhesive for porous materials, particularly wood, paper, and cloth. It is the most commonly used wood glue, both as "white glue" and the yellow "carpenter's glue." PVA is widely used in bookbinding and book arts due to its flexibility, and because it is non-acidic, unlike many other polymers
12Elastomeric contact Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesElastomericcontactViscous liquid, typicallyneoprene or styrene-butadine elastomers inorganic solvent or wateremulsion; tan to yellowLiquid applied directly to bothsurfaces, partially dried afterspreading and before pressing;roller-pressing at room tempera-ture produces instant bondingStrength develops immedi-ately upon pressing, in-creases slowly over a periodof weeks; dry strengthsmuch lower than those ofconventional wood adhe-sives; low resistance towater and damp atmos-pheres; adhesive film readilyyields under static loadOn-the-job bonding ofdecorative tops to kitchencounters; factory laminationof wood, paper, metal, andplastic sheet materials
13Elastomer contactThis solvent-based contact cement bonds instantly, eliminating clamping. It is strong-bonding, fast drying, oil and waterproof.Recommended for bonding plastic laminates to wood, hardboard, leather, rubber, plywood, laminates, particleboard, canvas and metal.Can also bond wood, aluminum, steel, fabric, copper, rubber, leather and canvas.
15Elastomeric mastic Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesElastomericmastic(constructionadhesivePutty like consistency,synthetic or naturalelastomers in organicsolvent or latex emul-sions; tan, yellow, grayMastic extruded in bead to fram-ing members by caulking gun orlike pressure equipment; nailingrequired to hold materials in placeduring setting and serviceStrength develops slowlyover several weeks; drystrength lower than conven-tional wood adhesives;resistant to water and moistatmospheres; tolerant of outdoor assembly conditions;gap-filling; nailing required toensure structural integrityLumber to plywood in floorand wall systems; laminat-ing gypsum board and rigidfoam insulating; assemblyof panel system in manu-factured homes
16MasticForms a surface skin, preventing transfer by touch and dirt pick-up on exposed surfaces.Paintable (after skin has formed).Easy clean-up off non-porous surfaces with mineral turpentine.Convenient to use non-slumping from vertical joints and easily extrudable.Long "open" time assists in the assembly of lap joints.Where can this product be used?MetalGlassConcreteMasonryTimber
17Emulsion poly- mer/isocyanate TypeForm and colorPreparation and applicationStrength propertiesTypical usesEmulsion poly-mer/isocyanateLiquid emulsion andseparate isocyanatehardener; white withhardener; colorlessbondlineEmulsion and hardener mixed byuser; reactive on mixing withcontrollable pot-life and curingtime; cured at room and elevatedtemperatures; radio-frequencycurable; high pressure requiredHigh dry and wet strength;very resistant to water anddamp atmosphere; veryresistant to prolonged andrepeated wetting and drying;adheres to metals andplasticsLaminated beams forinterior and exterior use;lamination of plywood tosteel metals and plastics;doors and architecturalmaterials
18Epoxy Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesEpoxyLiquid resin and hardenersupplied as two parts;completely reactiveleaving no free solvent;clear to amber; colorlessbondlineResin and hardener mixed byuser; reactive with limited pot-life;cured at room or elevated tem-peratures; only low pressurerequired for bond developmentHigh dry and wet strength towood, metal, glass, andplastic; formulations forwood resist water and dampatmospheres; delaminatewith repeated wetting anddrying; gap-fillingLaminating veneer andlumber in cold-moldedwood boat hulls; assemblyof wood components inaircraft; lamination ofarchitectural railings andposts; repair of laminatedwood beams and architec-tural building components;laminating sports equip-ment; general purposehome and shop
20Epoxy Bonds a variety of surfaces Dries Crystal Clear so there's no visible evidence of repairQuick setting in 5 minutesNo clamping necessaryHigh water resistanceForms a rigid, durable bondCan be used for gap filling (Surfaces need not mate closely)Good chemical resistanceHeat ResistantDoesn't yellow over time so is ideal for use on glassware Where can this product be used?Fixing a broken glass vaseRepairing jewelleryToy repairsFixing ornaments or crockeryFixing your handbag strapNot suitable for bonding plastics such as Polypropylene and Polyethylene or for use on polystyrene
21Hot melt Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesHot meltSolid blocks, pellets,ribbons, rods, or films;solvent-free; white to tan;near colorless bondlineSolid form melted for spreading;bond formed on solidification;requires special applicationequipment for controlling melt andflowDevelops strength quickly oncooling; lower strength thanconventional wood adhe-sives; moderate resistanceto moisture; gap-filling withminimal penetrationEdge-banding of panels;plastic lamination; patching;film and paper overlays;furniture assembly; generalpurpose home and shop
23Melamine Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesMelamine andmelamine-ureaPowder with blendedcatalyst; may be blendedup to 40% with urea; whiteto tan; colorless bondlineMixed with water; cured in hotpress at 120°C to 150°C (250°F to300°F); particularly suited for fastcuring in high-frequency pressesHigh dry and wet strength;very resistant to water anddamp atmospheresMelamine-urea primaryadhesive for durable bondsin hardwood plywood; end-jointing and edge-gluing oflumber; and scarf joiningsoftwood plywood
24Resorcinol Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesResorcinol andphenol-resorcinolLiquid resin and powderedhardener supplied as twoparts; phenol may becopolymerized withresorcinol; dark redbondlineLiquid mixed with powdered orliquid hardener; resorcinol adhe-sives cure at room temperatures;phenol-resorcinols cure at tem-peratures from 21°C to 66°C(70°F to 150°FHigh dry and wet strength;very resistant to moistureand damp atmospheres;more resistant than wood tohigh temperature andchemical agingPrimary adhesives forlaminated timbers andassembly joints that mustwithstand severe serviceconditions
25ResorcinolAdhesives formulated from resorcinol-formaldehyde resins or phenol-modified resorcinol-formaldehyde resins are the criteria for wood bonding applications demanding room temperature cure, structural integrity, and waterproof characteristics.
26Phenolic Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesPhenolicLiquid, powder, and dryfilm; dark red bondlineLiquid blended with extenders andfillers by user; film inserteddirectly between laminates;powder applied directly to flakesin composites; all formulationscured in hot press at 120°C to150°C (250°F to 300°F) up to200°C (392°F) in flakeboardsHigh dry and wet strength;very resistant to water anddamp atmospheres; moreresistant than wood to hightemperatures and chemicalagingPrimary adhesive forexterior softwood plywood,flakeboard, and hardboard
27Phenolics Phenolics (PF) or (phenol formaldehydes) high modulus, relatively heat resistant, and excellent fire resistant polymer. Used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures, paper laminated products (e.g. "Formica"), thermally insulation foams. It is a thermosetting plastic, with the familiar trade name Bakelite, that can be moulded by heat and pressure when mixed with a filler-like wood flour or can be cast in its unfilled liquid form or cast as foam, e.g. "Oasis". Problems include the probability of mouldings naturally being dark colours (red, green, brown), and as thermoset difficult to recycle
28Polyurethane Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesPolyurethaneLow viscosity liquid tohigh viscosity mastic;supplied as one part; two-part systems completelyreactive; color variesfrom clear to brown;colorless bondlineAdhesive applied directly to onesurface, preferably to water-misted surface; reactive withmoisture on surface and in air;cures at room temperature; highpressure required, but masticrequired only pressure fromnailingHigh dry and wet strength;resistant to water and dampatmosphere; limited resis-tance to prolonged andrepeated wetting and drying;gap-fillingGeneral purpose home andshop; construction adhesivefor panelized floor and wallsystems; laminatingplywood to metal andplastic sheet materials;specialty laminates; instal-lation of gypsum board
29PolyureathanePolyurethane is used as an adhesive, especially as a woodworking glue. Its main advantage over more traditional wood glues is its water resistance. It was introduced in the general North American market in the 1990s as Gorilla Glue and Excel, but has been used much longer in Europe.On the way to a new and better glue for bookbinders, a new adhesive system was introduced for the first time in The base for this system is polyether or polyester, whereas polyurethane (PUR) is used as prepolymer. Its special feature is the coagulation at room temperature and the reacting to moisture.
31Urea Type Form and color Preparation and application Strength propertiesTypical usesUreaPowder and liquid forms;may be blended withmelamine or other moredurable resins; white totan resin with colorlessbondlinePowder mixed with water, hard-ener, filler, and extender by user;some formulations cure at roomtemperatures, others require hotpressing at 120°C (250°F);curable with high-frequencyheatingHigh dry and wet strength;moderately durable underdamp atmospheres; moder-ate to low resistance totemperatures in excess of50°C (122°FHardwood plywood; furni-ture; fiberboard; particle-board; underlayment; flushdoors; furniture cores
32UreaIt was the first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from inorganic starting materials, in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler, who prepared it by the reaction of potassium cyanate with ammonium sulfate.It is found in mammalian and amphibian urine as well as in some fish. Birds and reptiles excrete uric acid, comprising a different form of nitrogen metabolism that requires less water.