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Israel’s Closure Policy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip November, 2007 MA’AN Development Center Palestine.

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Presentation on theme: "Israel’s Closure Policy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip November, 2007 MA’AN Development Center Palestine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Israel’s Closure Policy in the West Bank and Gaza Strip November, 2007 MA’AN Development Center Palestine

2 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Israel’s Closure Policy September 2007 Closure: The matrix of movement restrictions imposed on the Palestinian population including both administrative and physical obstacles that stem the free movement of people and goods in the Palestinian territories. Checkpoints Separation WallSettlementsMilitary ZonesRoad Blocks Permit Policy MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

3 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Source: United Nations for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, UNOCHA. Closures in the West Bank Situation update Closure TypeNumber Checkpoints74 Partial Checkpoints12 Road Gates90 Road Blocks56 Earth Mounds191 Trenches14 Road Barriers87 Earth Walls15 Total539  Palestinians face difficulty in accessing employment sites, medical care, educational institutions and holy sites  Closure ‘cantonizes’ the Palestinian territories and complicates movement between enclaves MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

4 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Checkpoints -Checkpoints are set up on main road ways and arteries that stagnate Palestinian movement -Mulls the free flow of labor and goods -Palestinians can be subject to strip search at any given time -Palestinian cars are searched, and Palestinians can be subject to long waiting periods -Fragments social and economic activities GAI/men_with_ids_army.JPG MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

5 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Partial and Flying Checkpoints -Flying Checkpoints are used by the IDF to conduct random checks on Palestinian vehicles om/2002/ /wld 3.jpg isher/EndUser?Action=UserDis playFullDocument&orgId=574&t opicId=25102&docId=l: &isRss=true al/Tank.jpg m/joelleydenkalandiaidf_450.jp g -Israel monitors the movement of Palestinians by shuffling them through narrow sectional corridors that connect Palestinian geographic trisections on.gif -Is costly to Palestinians given its unpredictability, causing hikes in transaction costs for economic activities and is dangerous in emergency situations MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

6 To cross certain checkpoints, Palestinians must carry their Palestinian IDs Palestinians must apply for permits to cross into Israel through the Israeli Coordination Office (DCO) Obtaining a permit is difficult, if not impossible, and is disastrous in times of medical emergency Disrupts the smooth flow of labor, goods, services, and education MA’AN Development Center Palestine Permit Regime -An estimated 67 Palestinian women gave birth to children at checkpoints because the IDF refused their entry -36 newborns and 4 women have died at these checkpoints -Between , 129 Palestinians died in ambulances waiting to cross checkpoints -All together, 1,905 ambulances were not allowed through* MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

7 MA’AN Development Center Palestine The Apartheid Wall -The Apartheid Wall was approved by the Israeli government in The Wall cuts severely into Palestinian territory as it transgresses the Green Line (adjacent image), separating Palestinians from land, natural resources and each other -The Apartheid Wall has intensified social and economic difficulties and has created a humanitarian crisis in the oPt -Palestinians are trapped in open air prisons, unable to reach medical facilities, schools and other social institutions UNOCHA, Closure Maps 2007 MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

8 Socio-Economic Impacts MA’AN Development Center Palestine -As the Wall progresses, more land is confiscated, obliging an increasing Palestinian population to depend on diminishing natural resources due to the Wall’s path -The Wall damages prime agricultural land, and deprives Palestinians of water resources along the western edge of the West Bank -Palestinians cannot make a living, or must do so at much higher transaction costs due to inefficient road routes MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

9 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Wall and settlements n2007/itme_beitfurikcp.jpg -The Wall cuts into Palestinian territory, entrapping Palestinians between the Green Line and the Aparthied Wall: classified as a “closed area” or “seam zone” -Passage between the seam zone and the rest of the West Bank obliges Palestinians to enter through gates spread 250 m apart with ‘hard to come by’ permits -Gates are not always open, are designated for particular uses, and are not open to all Palestinians. Gates are subject to becoming completely closed at any time. -Palestinians are shuffled through metallic gates and swivels that mull the free flow of movement of Palestinians e_divide/cpt09files/03.jpg Map source: West Bank Wall – May 2005 MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

10 Disastrous to Farmers: Agricultural gates are open only 3 times day at 20 minute intervals Schools are forced to operate according to gate intervals, Palestinians in enclaves are imprisoned in their own communities as gates lock in the evenings University students are unable to continue their education given the bureaucratic measures of permit issuance, often only offered 3 months at a time with no guarantee of renewal MA’AN Development Center Palestine Social and Economic Impacts MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

11 Represents the most fertile agricultural area and 28.5% of the total area of the the West Bank Was designated a closed zone by Israel, prohibiting Palestinian development in the area Accommodates 36 Israeli settlements and more than 6,200 settlers Palestinians without the Jordan Valley ID cannot reach this area and cannot travel freely between the West Bank and this area The Jordan Valley is closed to Palestinians, rigorously controlled by a series of checkpoints that serve as an ‘invisible wall’ to Palestinians. Inhibits Palestinian growth and development MA’AN Development Center Palestine Jordan Valley MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

12 Settlements are built on private Palestinian land inside the West Bank MA’AN Development Center Palestine Settlements Palestinians cannot use nearby roads and are subject to more difficult movement restrictions in close proximity to these settlements There are over 160 settlements accommodating approximately 400,000 settlers MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

13 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Economic Impacts -Between 2000 and 2002, the Palestinian economy experienced the deepest economic recession in modern history -Directly tied to Israel’s closure policy MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

14 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Economic Impacts -63% of the Palestinian population is now unemployed -16% live in extreme poverty* MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

15 -Palestinians cannot reach places of employment MA’AN Development Center Palestine Economic Impacts -Experience loss of agricultural crops due to spoilage, farmers cannot reach nearby markets -Palestinians face a 30% higher transaction rate in conducting business due to delays at checkpoints and longer and more circuitous routes MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

16 MA’AN Development Center Palestine Summary 1.Closure in the Palestinian Territories has devastated the Palestinian economy and has fragmented social activities 2.Israel’s Closure Policy is complex, comprising of administrative and physical obstacles that stem the free flow of movement of Palestinians 3.Closure prevents Palestinian economic growth and development, and exacerbates an already politically sensitive status 4.Violates international law, as it contradicts: 1.Freedom of movement 2.Right to property 3.Right to health 4.Right to education 5.Right to work 6.Right to food and water 7.Right to freedom of religion 5.Destroys hopes for the establishment of a viable Palestinian state MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

17 Citations BBC News Image: In Pictures, Israel Votes. Taken from: In Pursuit of Justice: Interview with Azmi Bishara. Taken from: Guardian Unlimited: A Hostage to Misfortune. Taken from: Wikimedia: Israeli Gate at Masha 800px-Israeli_gate_at_Masha.jpg. Answers.com: West Bank Closures. Taken from: Roadblock_in_Palestine.jpg. Asian Labour Update: Israel’s Approach to Fighting Terror? Take from: pg American Friends Service Committee. Closures. Taken from: International Middle East Media Center. Taken from: Middle East Web. Map. Taken from: Photo Album. Taken from: a.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.lysistrataproject.org/album.htm&h=364&w=450&sz=24&hl=e n&start=44&um=1&tbnid=HBk88va3E4XE2M:&tbnh=103&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dcheckpoint%2Bpalestinians%26start%3D36%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26um% 3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

18 Citations Palestinian ID holders. Taken from: Triptopalestine.com. ID photo. Take from: West Bankers get some Medical Care, Think Quest. Separation Wall Photo. Taken from: UNOCHA, Humanitarian Impact of the Barrier: Access to Agricultural Land: 2007 Palestinian School Children Photo. Taken from: /the_divide/cpt09files/03.jpg Liberal Democrat Friends of Palestine. Palestinian woman photo. Taken from Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. Farmer photo. Taken from: &imgrefurl=http://www.wrmea.com/archives/Oct_2004/ html&h=405&w=512&sz =48&hl=en&start=49&tbnid=D_tJhk- tEwwb3M:&tbnh=104&tbnw=131&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dqalqilya%26start%3D36%26gbv %3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN UNOCHA, Humanitarian Impact of the Barrier: Access to Agricultural Land: 2007 MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)

19 Citations Land Expropriation and Settlements. Jordan Valley Photo. Taken from: y.asp Israel Tightens Grip on Jordan Valley. Jordan Valley Photo. Taken from: Jordan Valley Photo. Taken from: To Exist is to Resist: MA’AN Publication, 2007 Interfaith Peace Builders. Settlement Photo. Taken from: Settler photo. Taken from: 9CF F8FA9CA92A6AC0C7116EB74C53936CF AD79 In Pursuit of Justice. Settlement photo. Taken from: UNOCHA, Closure Maps: 2007 and Churches for Middle East Peace: Source: Disengagement, the Palestinian Economy, and the Settlements (2004) The World Bank: 2007 In These Times. Israeli Soldier Palestinian Woman Checkpoint Photo. Taken from: International Middle East Media Center. Workers Photo. Taken from: Radio Netherlands. Checkpoint photo. Taken from: Palestinian Ministry of National Economy, The Palestinian Economy, The Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign Fact Sheet. The Wall and International Law MA’AN Development Center Palestine MA’AN Development Center Ramallah Head Office, Phone: (+972) / , Fax: (+972)


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