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Slide 1 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! EPS & SECURITIES CHAPTER 19 1
Slide 2 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Learning objectives The accounting for Stock Award Plans The accounting for Stock Options Distinguish between a simple & complex capital structure Determine Basic EPS Determine Dilutive EPS Presentation of EPS 2
Slide 3 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Key concepts : PART A: SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION Stock Awards Plans Stock Options Warrants PART B: Capital Structure: Simple/Complex Basic EPS / Dilutive EPS Presentation 3
Slide 4 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! 13-4Options Stock Awards/ options—granted to officers or employees, usually as part of a compensation plan.
Slide 5 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Stock Awards – grants stock to key employees Effective compensation programs are ones that: 1.motivate employees, 2.help retain executives and recruit new talent, 3.base compensation on performance, 4.Compensation associated with restricted stock tied to employment (if terminated the shares are subject to forfeiture) 5 Stock Award plans
Slide 6 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! New FASB (123R) standard requires companies to recognize compensation cost using the fair-value method. 6 The Major Reporting Issue Stock Compensation Plans Objective: record the fair value of compensation expense 1. How to determine compensation expense. 2. Over what periods to allocate compensation expense.
Slide 7 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Stock Option Plans A stock option granted to specified employees of a company Stock option: give employees the option to purchase: (a) a specified number of shares of the firm's stock, (a) a specified number of shares of the firm's stock, (b) at a specified exercise price (predetermined price) (c) during a specified period of time.
Slide 8 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! 8 Key Terms and Variables Grant date - date at which the options are granted to the employee Exercise price - price at which employee can buy the stock; the exercise price is usually set equal to the market price at the grant date Vesting period - period over which the employee first becomes eligible to exercise the options Expiration period - period after which the options lapse (i.e., can no longer be exercised)
Slide 9 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Grant date Option vested Option exercised
Slide 10 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! ACCOUNTING FOR STOCK OPTION Value of options depends on increases in market price of stock Accounting issue: – has been whether and how to measure “cost” to company of granting stock options
Slide 11 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Fair Value Method SFAS No. 123 (revised) accounting: for compensatory stock options; Requires the fair value method FAIR VALUE METHOD: –Using a model –OPTION PRICING MODEL
Slide 12 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Using Option Pricing Model Black-Scholes Researchers developed: Option Pricing Model The stock’s price, volatility, interest rates, dividends, and time to expiration are inputs using option pricing model. It is the most widely used option pricing model today
Slide 13 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! OTHER OPTION PLANS Performance-Based Plans –Option Plan granted to employees based on performance during the vesting period. Stock Appreciation Rights (SARs) –Gives the employees option of choosing cash instead of stock options 13
Slide 14 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Certificates entitling the holder to acquire shares of stock at a certain price within a stated period. Normally arise: 1.To make a security more attractive 2.As evidence of preemptive right 3.As compensation to employees Stock Warrants
Slide 15 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Bonds issued in conjunction with stock warrants. Bonds/warrants issued as elements of a single security Investors can trade the stock warrants separately Issuer is required to allocate the joint issuance price between the two instruments STOCK WARRANTS
Slide 16 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Stock Warrants Detachable warrants involves two securities, a debt security, a warrant to purchase common stock. Margolf Corp. issued 2,000, $1,000 bonds at 101. Each bond was issued with one detachable stock warrant. After issuance, the warrants had a market value of $40. Use the proportional method to record the issuance of the bonds and warrants.
Slide 17 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Earnings Per Share (EPS) Determining corporate value / Performance ROI Risk External/Internal decision markers predict future cash flows per share Compare inter-company performance Indicate the potential impact: of the issuance of common options, convertible preferred stock/debt on future earnings per share
Slide 18 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Capital Structures Simple Capital Structure- The corporation has only common and nonconvertible preferred stock and has NO OTHER SECURITIES Basic EPS
Slide 19 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! CAPITAL STRUCTURE Complex Capital Structure: The corporation has one or more instruments outstanding that could result in issuance of additional common shares. Complex Capital Structure: The corporation has one or more instruments outstanding that could result in issuance of additional common shares. Convertible Preferred Convertible Bonds Stock Options
Slide 20 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Simple and Complex Capital Structures Considers only common shares issued and outstanding. Basic Reflects the maximum potential dilution from all possible stock conversions that would have decreased EPS. Diluted
Slide 21 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! 21 Dilution of Earnings Dilutive Securities: Securities whose assumed exercise or conversion results in a reduction in earnings per share. Antidilutive Securities: Securities whose assumed conversion or exercise results in an increase in earnings per share.
Slide 22 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! EARNINGS PER SHARE FASB 128 : current standard for calculating and reporting earnings per share –Basic EPS –Diluted EPS Reporting: –EPS from cont. operations –Net income –Separate EPS for: discontinued operations, extraordinary items, cumulative effects of changes in accounting principles
Slide 23 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! BASIC EPS BASIC EARNINGS PER SHARE = (Net Income - Preferred Dividends*) Weighted average of common shares outstanding If preferred stock is cumulative: deduct dividends whether or not paid or declared. If preferred is non-cumulative: deduct dividends only if declared What if there is loss and preferred dividends issued? What about dividends in arrears for previous years?
Slide 24 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Prominence of Earnings Per Share Earnings per share is a basic reporting element in the financial statements. Some issues tend to complicate the calculation of basic earnings per share. –Use of a weighted-average number of shares of common stock –Outstanding shares of nonconvertible preferred stock –Changes in capitalization structure such as stock splits and stock dividends
Slide 25 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! WEIGHTED AVERAGE COMMON SHARES If a corporation has issued or reacquired shares of common stock – weighted average is calculated The weighted-average number of shares is based on the number of months that the shares were outstanding during the year. –“REAL” or average ownership –Fraction of the year: equivalent number of whole shares
Slide 26 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! Stock Dividends and Stock Splits Retroactive treatment: Stock dividend or split is treated as outstanding from the beginning of the period. Stock dividend or split is applied retroactively in proportion to the number of shares outstanding at the time of the dividend or split. New shares issued this period? New shares issued this period? Yes No
Slide 27 A Free sample background from © 2006 By Default! CHAPTER 19 BASIC & DILUTIVE EPS EARNINGS PER SHARE PART II COMPLEX STRUCTURE
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