Questions What IS a Just Culture? Who needs a Just Culture? Why do WE need a Just Culture? Who is busy with a Just Culture? How to make and guard a Just Culture? Is there a law on Just Culture? What can WE do for Just Culture?
What is a Just Culture? A culture in which frontline operators or others are not punished for actions, omissions or decisions taken by them that are commensurate with their experience and training, but where gross negligence, wilful violations and destructive acts are not tolerated.“
Why do we need a Just Culture? Where FEAR is leading, people will not learn to improve, but people will learn not to get caught. Learning is safer than punishing!
Pro-active learning : ROLES Managers Installing trust Risk Awareness Design for safety Facilitate the right choice Effective learning from events Workforce Earning Trust Risk awareness Design for safety Reporting Learning Being a role model
Just Culture background material Sidney Dekker. Just Culture. Balancing Safety and Accountability. AmazonAmazon Hearts and Minds available at the Energy Institutethe Energy Institute GAIN [Global Aviation Information network] A Roadmap to a Just Culture. Enhancing the Safety Environment. A Roadmap to a Just Culture Baines & Simmons. FAiR® System (Flowchart Analysis of Investigation Results) FAiR® System Reason. Managing Risks of Organizational Accidents.Amazon.Amazon Reason. Human error: models and management. Human error: models and management Hudson. A new model for a Just and Fair Culture.A new model for a Just and Fair Culture Hudson. Safety Culture – Theory and PracticeSafety Culture – Theory and Practice Eurocontrol Skybrary - Link to Just Culture materialLink to Just Culture material Eurocontrol. Establishment of Just Culture principles in ATM safety data reporting and assessment.Establishment of Just Culture principles in ATM safety data reporting and assessment. Mateou. Flying in the Face of Criminalization. The Safety Implications of Prosecuting Aviation Professionals for AccidentsFlying in the Face of Criminalization. David Marx. Whack a mole. The price we pay for expecting perfection.Whack a mole. The price we pay for expecting perfection. Eurocontrol. Just Culture Guidance Material for Interfacing with the Judicial SystemJust Culture Guidance Material for Interfacing with the Judicial System European Commission: EU REG 2003/42EU REG 2003/42 European Commission: updateupdate ICAO Safety Of Information Protection TaskForceSafety Of Information Protection TaskForce Eurocontrol Just Culture PolicyJust Culture Policy
How to create a Just Culture? Policy What you want to achieve: a learning culture. Better one lesson learned, then ten people punished. Definitions : What is good behaviour What is bad behaviour What you will do with BOTH Procedures Define WHO gets to say what is right and wrong Involve the workforce! Show good leadership Lead by example: it is NOT only about the workforce
Eurocontrol Just Culture Task Force Just Culture Model Policy Coordination Just Culture and related activities: In Europe with EU, EASA, ECAC In ICAO and global regions Model for a National Aviation Prosecution Policy To be discussed and implemented at National or Regional level Support to the Judiciary: Dedicated experts course for assisting Judiciary European initiatives for establishing a dialogue between safety and judicial experts
Netherlands’ law Implemented EU Directive on Aviation Reporting Includes protection for reporters Restrictions for prosecutor Willful misconduct and gross negligence excluded!
Now, what can WE do? We shall start with OURSELVES
A good INTERNAL Just Culture assists a good EXTERNAL Just Culture Internal Just Culture first Give people trust so they action their good intentions over and above their emotions. Better safety performance Your Just Culture adopts already parts of the classical beliefs of criminal justice. Justice officers will better trust your system
Easy cases are … well, easy. …but where is the real line between honest mistake and culpable behavior? SEAT RECLINE SWITCH UP DOWN WINGS FALL OFF WINGS STAY ON STOP Honest mistakeReckless behavior
Interpreting human behavior “The line” is drawn in 256 shades of gray! INTENT is what counts, not the outcome Reward and stimulate positive behavior What about the (non-)actions of the manager?
www.safetyandjustice.eu Sharing practical experience handling (internal) Just Culture issues Multiple fields Healthcare Processindustry Aviation Interactive Smartphone-ready (Just Culture in your pocket!) Expansions to Inspection, Prosecutor roles (future)
The background Based on JC “models” and theory James Reason David Marx Baines & Simmons Hearts & Minds Sidney Dekker Synthesis Avoid too simplistic views Take out overcomplicated theories Emphasize the positive side Include the management