Procedure Writing Agenda Communications Cycle. Writing Procedure Overview. Procedure Title and Purpose. Basic Principles to Follow. Action Step Construction. Validation Process. Closing and Qualification Process.
The Communication Cycle In Procedure Writing Message Medium Receiver Sender
The Communication Cycle In Procedure Writing Message –Includes the following types of information The technical content that should be included in a particular procedure. The quantity of information, such as the appropriate level of detail for the intended users. The sequence of the technical information, such as the logical organisation of the tasks and the steps in the procedure. Information about the user of the procedure, such as the level of detail to include in the procedure, a user's response to the instructions, the user's purpose and motivation, the user's level of training and education, the user's experience in performing the job, and the user's knowledge of the topic.
The Communication Cycle In Procedure Writing Medium –The medium of the message refers to its "packaging." Packaging is the document design features that a writer can use to make the procedure easier to read. –The packaging includes the method of access of the procedure such as online viewing, hard copy binders, single sheet prints that are good for a limited period of time, etc.
The Communication Cycle In Procedure Writing Sender –The sender is the writer. The writer determines the needed message and develops the procedure in a medium suitable for the intended environment.
The Communication Cycle In Procedure Writing Receiver –The receiver is the user of the procedure. The writer must be aware of the intended audience(s), including users and reviewers. –The writer must consider the user's purpose, level of training and education, and experience. Ideally, the user provides feedback to the writer as to the usefulness of the procedure.
Writing Process Overview Planning. –Systematic organisation of materials, subject matter experts and outline of procedure. Drafting. –Development of procedure text following guidelines for format, readability, ease of use, and consistency. Validation. –Structured evaluation of procedure to ensure that business requirements and document construction guidelines are met.
Procedure Title and Purpose Statement Establish clearly what the procedure is and why it is being done. –What does it contribute to the business? The first items developed are a clear, concise title and a purpose statement.
Procedure Title and Purpose Statement Procedure Beginning. –Example from Robot Palletising area procedures.
Procedure Format and Document Design Each procedure must be designed and written to: –Allow the user to be certain that the procedure is the correct one for the job. –Make the procedure easy to use. –Clearly organize the steps needed to complete the task. –Give clear directions that enable users to learn and / or complete tasks. Here are some guiding principles to make procedure writing easier...
Principle 1 Provide primary procedure identification. –Include the procedure number. –Include the revision status. –Give evidence of approval. –Identify the procedure's category. –Identify the originating/responsible organization. –List the procedure type, for example, administrative vs. operating. –Procedure subtypes (e.g., operating, maintenance or computer transaction procedures).
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Identification. –Example from Safe Working Practice header.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Identification. –Example from Safe Working Practice footer.
Principle 2 Give page identification information on all printed pages of the procedure. –Include the procedure Title. –Include the revision number. –Include the page number. –Include print date.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Identification. –Example of printed document information. Printed on Date Document TitlePage 1 of 5 Main text of document as printed from the system. Document Location
Principle 3 Identify all current revisions. –Revisions are identified and old version is linked to bottom of current version. –Old version stored in the website. –Place the revision number on every page.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Identification. –Revisions are identified as version 001, etc as per previous methods in the ISO documentation. –Revision 001 does not appear until procedures have been developed, approved, put in use and then changed for technical content.
Principle 4 Identify related action steps. –List steps in sequence. –Visually distinguish sub items. –Visually group tasks and subtasks. –Visually establish a hierarchy of steps.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Format. –Example from Safe Working Practice.
Principle 5 Establish consistent verification methods. –Provide a verification space. –Establish a standard placement. –Display spaces consistently. –Establish a standard method.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Format. –In SWP, verification is always on right side of action step. May include pictures or diagrams, hyperlinks to related information and procedures.
Principle 6 Use graphics to enhance text. –Organize data and process information. –Illustrate a process or system. –Use legends or keys. –Ensure readability. Procedure Format and Document Design
Principle 7 Use effective data sheets. –Give location instructions. –Relate data sheets to procedure sections. –Allow adequate and appropriate space for entering data.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Format. –Example of reference.
Principle 8 Identify and reference attachments and appendixes or linked graphics. –Give comprehensive information. –Identify attachments and appendixes consistently and clearly using standard formats. –Give proper page identification for hardcopy reference or linking to electronic documents. –Specify proper use.
Procedure Format and Document Design Procedure Format. –Example of graphic that go with step in a typical procedure.
Principle 9 Visually organize the information. –Use standard page template. –Use effective line spacing and typeface. –Provide sufficient space for recording information. –If new templates are required, design them.
Design and Layout. –Example of the standard template used for Safe Working Practice Documents.
Principle 10 Emphasize important information. –Use standard techniques. –Use emphasis techniques appropriately and sparingly. –Be consistent in the types of emphasis techniques used.
Procedure Format and Document Design Design and Layout. –Examples of Notes, Dangers, Warnings, Cautions, Important and Tips with brief explanation of where each is used.
Dangers, Cautions and Notes Problems. –The following problems with dangers, warnings, etc have caused performance errors: Danger/Warnings/etc that contain action steps. Danger/ Warnings/etc that are located after a step. Action steps that contain Danger/ Warnings /etc information.
Principle 11 Identify prerequisite information first. –Provide guidance. –List preliminary actions. –Give scheduling requirements. –List special equipment or safety items needed first. –State prerequisite information or skills that must be verified. –Include safety information and control measures.
Procedure Format and Document Design Design and Layout. –Information required as part of the Safe Working Practice Template.
Principle 12 Use References and Branching to link to associated information. –Provides link to upstream or downstream procedure. –Provides access to supporting legal or business data. –Should be used as and when necessary but not to the point that is confuses the users. –Should be linked electronically where it is possible.
Referencing and Branching Referencing –refer to…document on… –record on…in accordance with… –per…using… –see… Branching –go to (forward or backward) –return to (backward only) –exit… and go to… (for extra emphasis)
Procedure Format and Document Design Design and Layout. –Example of a “go to” situation in a Procedure. –Notice the electronic link because of the networked system.
Principle 13 Use simple and direct language. –Avoid vague pronouns. –Use short, precise sentences. –Devise a method to identify the person performing the task. –Use standard and consistent acronyms, abbreviations, terms, and definitions. –Write the action statement so that the subject, “you”, is understood. –State the direct object of the verb. –Use language that provides direct commands and avoids complex terms. –Identify those responsible for actions.
Principle 14 Use verbs consistently. –Use verbs that are familiar to the user. –Include the verb's object. –Ensure that the order of performance is clear.
Action Step Construction Simple Command Statements.
Action Step Construction Use of Location and Object Modifiers.
Action Step Construction Using Command Format Statements.
Action Step Construction Identifying the Responsible Person / Group when important to do so.
Action Step Construction Vertically Listing Multiple Objects.
Action Step Construction Use Task Headings when there are sub procedures to be identified. –Example from typical Procedure.
The Final Stage of the Procedure Writing Process Reviewing and validating –The procedure is organized by tasks and steps within each task. –The procedure contains the appropriate information. –Attachments correlate with the information in the body of the procedure Designed and referenced correctly –All standards for mechanics of style have been met.
Validation Validation is a comparison of the written procedure with the actual task in actual work environment to check performance.
Validation Principles Technical Accuracy –The technical source material should be accurate and up to date. –Tolerances should be expressed as ranges to reduce the possibility of error. –Equipment names, equipment numbers, parts, and units of measure should match the technical sources. –Validation, signoffs, and approvals should be included according to company policy.
Validation Principles Written Correctness –The appropriate format should be consistently used to improve the procedure's readability. –The level of detail should be complete enough for the least qualified user to perform the task. –User decisions must be made in a logical order, and instructions must be provided for all possible decision outcomes. –Figures, tables, and data sheets should be useful and well designed to reduce the chance of error. –Adequate room for calculations should be provided where calculations are required. –Referencing and branching (electronic or otherwise) should be used only where it adds value. If used, references should be complete, appropriate, and correct.
Your Role in the Process The role of the individuals in these training sessions will be to write the procedures. Inputting will be done by somebody else. Implementation will be through the Team Leader or qualified person who will sign off the individuals for each SWP.
Validation Checklist When large numbers of procedures are being validated at one time, a checklist can be used to keep track. A document development tracking spreadsheet is used. Other temporary checklists are used to ensure involvement and sign off of multiple shifts when required. Refer to User Guide Resource Material for an example.
Validation Methods Walk-Through in the Plant –Advantages: Faster than the actual performance method Can be combined with training Relatively inexpensive Allows time for interruptions, questions, answers, and user reactions Allows validator to observe user reactions Allows validation of most or all steps that do not require hardware responses Will not damage equipment unless operated by the user –Disadvantage: Does not allow validation of hardware responses to user actions
Validation Methods Walk-Through in a Mock-up or Simulation –Advantages: Faster than the actual performance method Can be combined with training Relatively inexpensive, using an existing laboratory or mock-up Allows time for interruptions, questions, answers, and user reactions Allows validator to observe user reactions Allows validation of steps that do not require plant responses Will not damage plant equipment –Disadvantages: Does not allow validation of hardware responses to user actions Is not an accurate validation if the mock-up does not exactly match the actual plant
Validation Methods Talk-Through or Tabletop –Advantages: Convenient Relatively inexpensive Can be repeated as often as necessary Can be performed anywhere –Disadvantages: Cannot validate equipment nomenclature Cannot use equipment responses to test the user's decisions Cannot check how procedures are used in the field
Validation Methods Actual Performance –Advantages: Most exacting method, reflects the “real world” Can observe equipment response –Disadvantages: Could damage equipment if procedure is incorrect Time consuming
Closing Questions and Answers Qualification With the aid of this material, write 4 procedures for an area you are a subject matter expert for, to the standards identified in the performance checklist. Thank You for your attention