4 Strategic Concerns in Instrument Design What type of scale is needed?題目的尺度為何What communication approach will be used?調查方法為何Should the questions be structured?問題是否採結構化Should the questioning be disguised?問題是否要偽裝
5 Technology Affects Questionnaire Development Write questionnaires more quickly快速製作問卷Create visually driven instruments視覺化工具增加參與Eliminate manual data entry減少手動輸入Save time in data analysis節省資料分析時間
6 Disguising Study Objectives Reluctantly shared,Conscious-levelinformationWillingly shared,Conscious-levelinformationWhetherdisguise isnecessary ?Knowable,Limited-conscious-level informationSubconscious-level information
7 Dummy Table for American Eating Habits AgeUse of Convenience FoodsAlways UseUse FrequentlyUse SometimesRarely UseNever Use18-2425-3435-4455-6465+
9 Question Categories and Structure Administrative行政程序問題Target目標性問題Classification分類性問題
10 Question Content Should this question be asked? 參考 P.305圖表13-6Should this question be asked?是否符合研究目的Is the question of proper scope and coverage?問題範圍是否恰當Can the participant adequatelyanswer this question?是否能正確回答問題Will the participant willinglyanswer this question?是否願意回答問題
11 Question Wording Shared vocabulary Single Meaning Misleading CriteriaSharedvocabularySingleMeaningMisleadingassumptionsBiasedPersonalizedAdequatealternatives
12 Response Strategy Factors Objectives of the study Participant’s motivation toshareParticipant’s level of informationFactorsEase and clarity with which participant communicatesDegree to which participants have thought through topic
13 Free-Response Strategy What factors influenced your enrollment in Metro U?____________________________________________Dichotomous Response StrategyDid you attend the “A Day at College” program at Metro U?YesNo
14 Multiple Choice Response Strategy 單選題Which one of the following factors was most influentialin your decision to attend Metro U?Good academic standingSpecific program of study desiredEnjoyable campus lifeMany friends from homeHigh quality of faculty
15 Checklist Response Strategy 複選題Which of the following factors influencedyour decision to enroll in Metro U? (Check all that apply.)Tuition costSpecific program of study desiredParents’ preferencesOpinion of brother or sisterMany friends from home attendHigh quality of faculty
17 RankingPlease rank-order your top three factors from the following list based on their influence in encouraging you to apply to Metro U. Use 1 to indicate the most encouraging factor, 2 the next most encouraging factor, etc. _____ Opportunity to play collegiate sports _____ Closeness to home _____ Enjoyable campus life _____ Good academic reputation _____ High quality of faculty
18 Summary of Scale Types Needs mutually exclusive choices One or more RestrictionsScale ItemsData TypeRating Scales 評等量表Simple Category ScaleNeeds mutually exclusive choicesOne or moreNominalMultiple Choice Single-Response ScaleMay use exhaustive list or ‘other’ManyMultiple Choice Multiple-ResponseScale(checklist)Needs exhaustive list or ‘other’Likert ScaleNeeds definitive positive or negative statements with which to agree/disagreeOrdinalLikert-type ScaleExhibit 13-7 summarizes some important considerations in choosing between the various response strategies.While all of the response strategies are available for use in Web questionnaires, there are slightly different layout options for response in Web surveys.
19 Multiple Rating List Scale Summary of Scale TypesTypeRestrictionsScale ItemsData TypeRating Scales 評等量表Numerical ScaleNeeds concepts with standardized meanings;Needs number anchors of the scale or end-pointsScore is a measurement of graphical spaceOne or manyOrdinal or IntervalMultiple Rating List ScaleNeeds words that are opposites to anchor the end-points on the verbal scaleUp to 10OrdinalFixed Sum ScaleParticipant needs ability to calculate total to some fixed number, often 100.Two or moreInterval or RatioExhibit 13-7 summarizes some important considerations in choosing between the various response strategies.While all of the response strategies are available for use in Web questionnaires, there are slightly different layout options for response in Web surveys.
20 Summary of Scale TypesTypeRestrictionsScale ItemsData TypeRating Scales 評等量表Stapel ScaleNeeds verbal labels that are operationally defined or standard.One or moreOrdinal or IntervalGraphic Rating ScaleNeeds visual images that can be interpreted as positive or negative anchorsScore is a measurement of graphical space from one anchor.Ordinal(Interval, or Ratio)Exhibit 13-7 summarizes some important considerations in choosing between the various response strategies.While all of the response strategies are available for use in Web questionnaires, there are slightly different layout options for response in Web surveys.
21 Paired Comparison Scale Summary of Scale TypesTypeRestrictionsScale ItemsData TypeRanking Scales 排序量表Paired Comparison ScaleNumber is controlled by participant’s stamina and interest.Up to 10OrdinalForced Ranking ScaleNeeds mutually exclusive choices.Ordinal or IntervalComparative ScaleCan use verbal or graphical scale.Exhibit 13-7 summarizes some important considerations in choosing between the various response strategies.While all of the response strategies are available for use in Web questionnaires, there are slightly different layout options for response in Web surveys.Exhibit 13-6, starting on the next slide, illustrates these layout options.
22 Internet Survey Scale Options Exhibit 13-6 ( 1 of 3)
23 Internet Survey Scale Options Exhibit 13-6 ( 2 of 3)
24 Internet Survey Scale Options Exhibit 13-6 ( 3 of 3)
25 Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 As depicted in Exhibit 13-9, instrument design is a multistep process.Develop the participant-screening process along with the introduction. A screen question is a question to qualify the participant’s knowledge about the target questions of interest or experience necessary to participate.Arrange the measurement question sequence:Identify groups of target questions by topicEstablish a logical sequence for the question groups and questions within groupsDevelop transitions between these question groups.Prepare and insert instructions including termination instructions, skip directions, and probes.Create and insert a conclusion, including a survey disposition statement.Pretest specific questions and the instrument as a whole.
26 Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Develop the participant-screening processArrange the measurement question sequenceA. Identify groups of target question by topic.塞選受測對象投票 年滿20、身分學生 管理學院等….安排問題順序依照主題放置不同群組問題內容建立一個有邏輯的順序問題之間的轉折方式
28 Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Develop the participant-screening processArrange the measurement question sequenceA. Identify groups of target question by topic.B. Establish a logical sequence for the question groups and questions within groups.C. Develop transitions between these questions groups.塞選受測對象安排問題順序依照主題放置不同群組問題內容建立一個有邏輯的順序問題之間的轉折方式
30 Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Prepare and insert instructions for the interviewerCreate and insert a conclusionPretest specific questions and the instrument as a whole簡單帶過下指示給受訪者Termination instruction ,skip directions ,probes for the participant 終止 或 跳題形成並寫入結論A survey disposition statement. 確認問卷或問題 是否還需要修正Pretest specific questions and the instrument as a whole 必須完整的測試 因為接下來就要實發問卷/問題
34 Measurement Question Sequencing Awaken Interest and MotivationSensitive and Ego-Involving InformationSimple to ComplexGeneral to SpecificQuestion Groups and Transitions引發興趣與動機 要找具有吸引力且不具爭議性的題目 目的是引發受測者的興趣動機 越有吸引力越好敏感涉及自我的資訊由簡而繁一般到特殊問題的群組與轉折
36 Maximum Online Survey Length Prior to Abandonment 受訪者填寫問題時願意花費的最長時間
37 Instruction Terminating an unqualified participant Terminating a discontinued interviewMoving between questions on an instrumentDisposing of a completed questionnaireConclusionTerminating an unqualified participant終止不合格的受測者答非所問Terminating a discontinued interview 停止無法繼續下去的訪問受測者不願繼續受訪Moving between questions on an instrument 調查工具之間移動(跳題)Disposing of a completed questionnaire 填完問卷後的指示交付 回復Conclusion 結論 表達感謝
38 Overcoming Instrument Problems Build Rapport with the ParticipantRedesign the Question ProcessExplore Alternative Response StrategiesUse methods other than surveying to secure the data克服工具上的問題建立良好的關係重新設計問題的處理方式探索其他的策略
39 The Value of Pretesting Discovering ways to increase participant interest.Increasing the likelihood that participants will remain engaged to the completion of the survey.Discovering question content, wording, and sequencing problems.尋找可以增加受測者興趣的方式 (獎品 抽獎)增加受測者可以完成調查的可能性 (減少問卷的問題數量 問題的字數)措辭以及排序問題培訓研究者去探討主題的問題探討如何去提高數據的品質
40 The Value of Pretesting Discovering target question groups where researcher training is needed.Exploring ways to improve the overall quality of survey data.尋找可以增加受測者興趣的方式 (獎品 抽獎)增加受測者可以完成調查的可能性 (減少問卷的問題數量 問題的字數)措辭以及排序問題培訓研究者去探討主題的問題( 發現研究者必須加強的問題 或群組)探討如何去提高數據的品質