Strategic Concerns in Instrument Design What type of scale is needed? 題目的尺度為何 What communication approach will be used? 調查方法為何 Should the questions be structured? 問題是否採結構化 Should the questioning be disguised? 問題是否要偽裝 4
Technology Affects Questionnaire Development 5 Write questionnaires more quickly 快速製作問卷 Create visually driven instruments 視覺化工具增加參與 Eliminate manual data entry 減少手動輸入 Save time in data analysis 節省資料分析時間
Disguising Study Objectives 6 Whether disguise is necessary ? Whether disguise is necessary ? Willingly shared, Conscious-level information Reluctantly shared, Conscious-level information Knowable, Limited-conscious- level information Subconscious-level information
Dummy Table for American Eating Habits 7 Age Use of Convenience Foods Always Use Use Frequently Use SometimesRarely UseNever Use
Question Content 10 Should this question be asked? 是否符合研究目的 Is the question of proper scope and coverage? 問題範圍是否恰當 Can the participant adequately answer this question? 是否能正確回答問題 Will the participant willingly answer this question? 是否願意回答問題 參考 P.305 圖表 13-6
Criteria Shared vocabulary Single Meaning Misleading assumptions BiasedPersonalized Adequate alternatives Question Wording 11
Response Strategy 12 Factors Objectives of the study Participant’s level of information Degree to which participants have thought through topic Ease and clarity with which participant communicates Participant’s motivation to share
Free-Response Strategy 13 What factors influenced your enrollment in Metro U? ____________________________________________ Dichotomous Response Strategy Did you attend the “A Day at College” program at Metro U? Yes No
14 Multiple Choice Response Strategy 單選題 Which one of the following factors was most influential in your decision to attend Metro U? Good academic standing Specific program of study desired Enjoyable campus life Many friends from home High quality of faculty
Checklist Response Strategy 15 複選題 Which of the following factors influenced your decision to enroll in Metro U? (Check all that apply.) Tuition cost Specific program of study desired Parents’ preferences Opinion of brother or sister Many friends from home attend High quality of faculty
Strongly influential Somewhat influential Not at all influential Good academic reputation Enjoyable campus life Many friends High quality faculty Semester calendar Checklist Response Strategy 16
Please rank-order your top three factors from the following list based on their influence in encouraging you to apply to Metro U. Use 1 to indicate the most encouraging factor, 2 the next most encouraging factor, etc. _____ Opportunity to play collegiate sports _____ Closeness to home _____ Enjoyable campus life _____ Good academic reputation _____ High quality of faculty Ranking 17
TypeRestrictionsScale Items Data Type Rating Scales 評等量表 Simple Category Scale Needs mutually exclusive choicesOne or more Nominal Multiple Choice Single-Response Scale Needs mutually exclusive choices May use exhaustive list or ‘other’ ManyNominal Multiple Choice Multiple-Response Scale (checklist) Needs mutually exclusive choices Needs exhaustive list or ‘other’ ManyNominal Likert Scale Needs definitive positive or negative statements with which to agree/disagree One or more Ordinal Likert-type Scale Needs definitive positive or negative statements with which to agree/disagree One or more Ordinal 18 Summary of Scale Types
TypeRestrictionsScale Items Data Type Rating Scales 評等量表 Numerical Scale Needs concepts with standardized meanings; Needs number anchors of the scale or end- points Score is a measurement of graphical space One or many Ordinal or Interval Multiple Rating List Scale Needs words that are opposites to anchor the end-points on the verbal scale Up to 10 Ordinal Fixed Sum Scale Participant needs ability to calculate total to some fixed number, often 100. Two or more Interval or Ratio 19
Summary of Scale Types TypeRestrictionsScale Items Data Type Rating Scales 評等量表 Stapel Scale Needs verbal labels that are operationally defined or standard. One or more Ordinal or Interval Graphic Rating Scale Needs visual images that can be interpreted as positive or negative anchors Score is a measurement of graphical space from one anchor. One or more Ordinal (Interval, or Ratio) 20
Summary of Scale Types TypeRestrictionsScale Items Data Type Ranking Scales 排序量表 Paired Comparison Scale Number is controlled by participant’s stamina and interest. Up to 10Ordinal Forced Ranking Scale Needs mutually exclusive choices.Up to 10Ordinal or Interval Comparative Scale Can use verbal or graphical scale.Up to 10Ordinal 21
Internet Survey Scale Options 22
Internet Survey Scale Options 23
Internet Survey Scale Options 24
13-25 Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 25
Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Develop the participant-screening process Arrange the measurement question sequence A. Identify groups of target question by topic.
Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Develop the participant-screening process Arrange the measurement question sequence A. Identify groups of target question by topic. B. Establish a logical sequence for the question groups and questions within groups. C. Develop transitions between these questions groups.
Flowchart for Instrument Design Phase 3 Prepare and insert instructions for the interviewer Create and insert a conclusion Pretest specific questions and the instrument as a whole
Measurement Question Sequencing Awaken Interest and Motivation Sensitive and Ego-Involving Information Simple to Complex General to Specific Question Groups and Transitions
Maximum Online Survey Length Prior to Abandonment
Instruction Terminating an unqualified participant Terminating a discontinued interview Moving between questions on an instrument Disposing of a completed questionnaire Conclusion
Overcoming Instrument Problems Build Rapport with the Participant Redesign the Question Process Explore Alternative Response Strategies Use methods other than surveying to secure the data
The Value of Pretesting Discovering ways to increase participant interest. Increasing the likelihood that participants will remain engaged to the completion of the survey. Discovering question content, wording, and sequencing problems.
The Value of Pretesting Discovering target question groups where researcher training is needed. Exploring ways to improve the overall quality of survey data.