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FLOWSHEET DESIGN. PROCESS FLOWSHEET IS A DELIVERABLE FOR THE PROJECT IS A PRIMARY COMMUNICATION COMPONENT USED TO CALCULATE CAPITAL & OPERATING COST ESTIMATES.

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Presentation on theme: "FLOWSHEET DESIGN. PROCESS FLOWSHEET IS A DELIVERABLE FOR THE PROJECT IS A PRIMARY COMMUNICATION COMPONENT USED TO CALCULATE CAPITAL & OPERATING COST ESTIMATES."— Presentation transcript:

1 FLOWSHEET DESIGN

2 PROCESS FLOWSHEET IS A DELIVERABLE FOR THE PROJECT IS A PRIMARY COMMUNICATION COMPONENT USED TO CALCULATE CAPITAL & OPERATING COST ESTIMATES USED TO DESCRIBE THE PROPOSED PROJECT

3 FLOWSHEETING SKILL IS USED BY ENGINEERING FIRMS TO WORK WITH CLIENTS ON POTENTIAL PROJECTS AND ACTUAL PROJECTS THIS METHOD IS GENERALLY APPLIED USING SIMULATORS FOR AN EXAMPLE SEE Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 87, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 36–46 Chemical Engineering Research and DesignVolume 87, Issue 1

4 FLOWSHEETING STEPS A RIGOROUS FLOW CHART FROM FIGURE 4.1 IN TEXT DETAIL DEPENDS UPON HOW MUCH DATA IS ACTUALLY AVAILABLE

5 SOURCES OF DATA PROCESS DATA FROM LIBRARY: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry THE SRI PROCESS ECONOMICS PROGRAM ( ) WILL PROVIDE INFORMATION, BUT THIS IS FOR SUBSCRIBERS ONLY

6 USES OF FLOWSHEETING TO LEARN A PROCESS FOR A NEW ASSIGNMENT OPERATING PROCESSES HAVE DETAILED DESIGN DRAWINGS, BUT RARELY HAVE THE ORIGINAL PFD’S OR BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAMS OPTIMIZATION OF A PROCESS ALSO CAN BE MANAGED USING THE FLOWSHEETING METHODS

7 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION EXAMPLE EXAMINES OPTIMUM PROCESS ARRANGEMENT FOR OBTAINING BUTANOL, ETHANOL, AND ACETONE FROM GRAINS Liu, J.; Fan, L. T.; Seib, P.; Friedler, F.; Bertok, B., Downstream Process Synthesis for Biochemical Production of Butanol, Ethanol, and Acetone from Grains: Generation of Optimal and Near-Optimal Flowsheets with Conventional Operating Units, Biotechnol. Prog.; (Article); 2004; 20(5);

8 OPTIMIZATION RESULTS RESULTS ARE IN TERMS OF OPERATING COSTS Liu, J.; Fan, L. T.; Seib, P.; Friedler, F.; Bertok, B., Downstream Process Synthesis for Biochemical Production of Butanol, Ethanol, and Acetone from Grains: Generation of Optimal and Near-Optimal Flowsheets with Conventional Operating Units, Biotechnol. Prog.; (Article); 2004; 20(5);

9 EXAMPLES OF OTHER USES OF FLOWSHEETING Palaniappan, C.; Srinivasan, R.; Tan, R. B., Expert System for the Design of Inherently Safer Processes. 2. Flowsheet Development Stage, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; (Article); 2002; 41(26); Urmila M. Diwekar, H. Christopher Frey, Edward S. Rubin, Synthesizing optimal flowsheets: applications to IGCC system environmental control, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.; 1992; 31(8);

10 DESIGN GUIDELINES SIMPLICITY –SIMPLE PROCESSES ARE MORE RELIABLE THAN COMPLEX PROCESSES –SIMPLE PROCESSES CAN BE MODIFIED TO ADD COMPLEXITY IF THAT HAS A SIGNIFICANT ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE ng

11 RAW MATERIALS FACTORS AVAILABILITY IN THE FORM REQUIRED –IS RAW MATERIAL CURRENTLY PRODUCED IN NECESSARY FORM AND QUANTITIES? AMOUNT OF PREPROCESSING AVAILABLE –CAN INITIAL STEPS BE COMPLETED AT SUPPLIER? –IS IT COST EFFECTIVE TO DO PREPARATION ON SITE? COST –IS THE CURRENT PRICE STABLE? –CAN CURRENT PRICE BE CONTROLLED BY CAPTIVE PURCHASE?

12 BY-PRODUCT CONSIDERATIONS CAN BY-PRODUCTS BE MARKETED OR WILL ALTERNATE DISPOSAL BE REQUIRED. IF POSSIBLE, CHOOSE THE PROCESS CONFIGURATION THAT AVOIDS PRODUCING BY- PRODUCTS obased/graphics/prio. jpg

13 ENERGY CONSUMPTION ENERGY COSTS ARE GENERALLY A MAJOR PORTION OF THE OPERATING COST NORMALLY SELECT THE PROCESS CONFIGURATION WITH THE LOWER ENERGY COSTS rgys.com/images/tamp a_350_bg.jpg

14 DETAIL OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL PROCESSES TEND TO HAVE THE MOST COMPLETE INFORMATION BASE PROCESSES IN DEVELOPMENT CAN BE USED TO OBTAIN SOME OF THE NECESSARY DESIGN DATA CONCEPTUAL PROCESSES HAVE LOWEST LEVELS OF CERTAINTY

15 OTHER DESIGN FACTORS PATENTS AND ROYALTIES – CAN ADD TO THE OPERATING COSTS ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS –MSDS DATA FOR ALL PURE STREAMS (http://hazard.com/msds/)http://hazard.com/msds/) –ESTIMATED RISKS FOR MIXED STREAMS BASED ON MSDS DATA – USE MOST EXTREME PURE COMPONENT DATA UNLESS MIXTURE PROPERTIES ARE AVAILABLE

16 DEVELOPMENT OF BFD FIRST LEVEL IS THE BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM (BFD) EACH AREA SHOULD BE DEFINED BY FUNCTION –EXACT PROCESS IS NOT NECESSARILY DEFINED –EQUIPMENT TYPES ARE NOT SPECIFIED CONNECTING FLOWS SHOULD INCLUDE PRESSURES, TEMPERATURES AND COMPOSITIONS, WHEN AVAILABLE –UTILITIES ARE NOT TYPICALLY INCLUDED ALL FLOWS SHOW FINAL DEPOSITION – TERMINAL DESIGNATIONS

17 TYPICAL BFD 140m3_a/figures/fig4_3.htmwww.ocrwm.doe.gov/documents/rpa 140m3_a/figures/fig4_3.htm

18 PFD DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM INCLUDES MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE DATA, SPECIFIC PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT SIMSCI®, SUPERPRO®, ASPEN®, AND OTHER PROCESS SIMULATORS PRODUCE FLOWSHEET DIAGRAMS –NEED CHEMICAL AND THERMOPHYSICAL DATA TO COMPLETE THIS PART OF THE DESIGN BASE CASE IS CREATED FOR USE IN SUBSEQUENT OPTIMIZATION

19 PFD DEVELOPMENT FLOWSHEETS MAY HAVE SINGLE OR PARALLEL TRAINS BATCH AND SEMI-BATCH STEPS ARE INCLUDED –FOR BATCH OPERATIONS, AVERAGED FLOWRATES ARE PROVIDED FOR THE OVERALL MASS BALANCES FOR SIMSCI –FOR BATCH OPERATIONS, MAXIMUM FLOWRATES ARE PROVIDED FOR DESIGN OF THE FACILITIES WITH SIMSCI® WITH SUPERPRO®, BATCH IS THE BASE METHOD

20 PFD EXAMPLE

21 USES OF PFD RESULTS AS THE BASIS FOR CAPITAL COST ESTIMATES –SPECIFICATIONS FOR PURCHASING EACH EQUIPMENT ITEM ARE DEVELOPED DURING THE EQUIPMENT DESIGN –SOME PROGRAMS (SUPERPRO®) INCLUDE EQUIPMENT COSTS –CAPITAL COSTS FOR EQUIPMENT ARE USED AS THE BASE FOR CALCULATION OF ALL OTHER INSTALLED CAPITAL COMPONENTS FOR THE PROJECTS

22 APPLICATION OF PFD RESULTS OPERATING COST ESTIMATES. RAW MATERIAL YIELDS ARE DETERMINED DURING THE DESIGN PHASE UTILITY CONSUMPTION IS DETERMINED DURING THE DESIGN PHASE LABOR FUNCTIONS CAN BE ASSIGNED TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR LABOR CALCULATIONS

23 OPTIMIZATION ANALYSIS EVALUATED USING THE BASE CASE AS A REFERENCE CAPITAL COSTS ARE ADJUSTED FOR PARTICULAR EQUIPMENT ITEMS OPERATING COST VARIATIONS FOR SPECIFIC PROCESSES CAN BE EVALUATED u/courses/ipm444/03Econo mics/Optimization.gif

24 POSSIBLE FLOWSHEET ERRORS TAKEN FROM Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries, J. Frank Valle- Riestra, McGraw-Hill, 1983, p. 169 MISSING TERMINAL DESIGNATIONS – LINES THAT COME FROM NOWHERE AND GO NOWHERE ARE UNACCEPTABLE MISSING STORAGE TANKS FOR RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED GOODS IN-PROCESS STORAGE TANKS FOR SURGES, SAMPLING, OFF-SPECIFICATION, AND OTHER INVENTORY FUNCTIONS MISSING REDUNDANT EQUIPMENT – IN- PLACE SPARES

25 OVERLOOKED ITEMS AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT VACUUM SYSTEMS INERTING SYSTEMS START-UP FACILITIES RECYCLE LINES SURGE TANKS EMERGENCY AND SAFETY DEVICES PRESSURE RELIEF SYSTEMS SCRUBBERS FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT EMERGENCY GENERATORS 391/Assets/37DA.gif$ASSET

26 TYPICAL RELIEF SYSTEM diagram.gif

27 OVERLOOKED ITEMS MAINTENANCE FACILITIES BLOW DOWN LINES HIGH POINT VENTS LOW POINT DRAINS ISOLATION VALVES AND BYPASSES GENERAL USE UTILITIES WASTE DISPOSAL FACILTIES DRAINS TO PROCESS SEWERS DRAINS TO STORM SEWERS

28 EXAMPLE OF THE FINAL RESULT Competitive Rankings Cost Basis Cl2 Production StatusPlantType Capacity (St Cl) Cash Cost per Co-Ton Formosa Plastics Point Comfort, TXMembrane Bayer Corp Baytown, TXMembrane Dow Chemical Freeport, TXMembrane NewGGC Proj PlaquemineMembrane PPG Lake Charles, LAMembrane NewShinTech Post Expansion Plaquemine, LAMembrane PPG Lake Charles, LADiaphragm CurrentShinTech Plaquemine, LAMembrane Dow Chemical PlaquemineDiaphragm Westlake CA&O Calvert City, KYMembrane Olin Corp Niagara Falls, NYMembrane NewGGC Proj L CharlesMembrane CurrentGGC Current PlaquemineDiaphragm Sunbelt Corp. (Olin-PolyOne) McIntosh, ALMembrane NewGGC Proj L CharlesMembrane Basic Chemicals Geismar, LAMembrane Occidental Corpus Christi, TXDiaphragm Basic Chemicals Wichita, KSDiaphragm Occidental Convent, LADiaphragm Occidental LaPorte, TXDiaphragm Occidental Niagara Falls, NYDiaphragm Occidental Taft, LADiaphragm Olin Corp McIntosh, ALDiaphragm Basic Chemicals Geismar, LADiaphragm FROM T. PAVONE – DETAILS TO FOLLOW


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