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Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Systems Documentation Techniques Chapter 3 3-1
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Prepare and use data flow diagrams to understand, evaluate, and document information systems. Prepare and use flowcharts to understand, evaluate, and document information systems. Prepare and use business process diagrams to understand, evaluate, and document information systems. 3-2
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Why Document Systems? Accountants must be able to read documentation and understand how a system works (e.g., auditors need to assess risk) Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) requires management to assess internal controls and auditors to evaluate the assessment Used for systems development and changes 3-3
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) Focuses on the data flows for: Processes Sources and destinations of the data Data stores DFD are visually simple, can be used to represent the same process at a high abstract or detailed level. 3-4
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Basic Data Flow Diagram Elements 3-5
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Basic Guidelines for creating a DFD Understand the system that you are trying to represent. A DFD is a simple representation meaning that you need to consider what is relevant and what needs to be included. Start with a high level (context diagram) to show how data flows between outside entities and inside the system. Use additional DFD’s at the detailed level to show how data flows within the system. Identify and group all the basic elements of the DFD. Name data elements with descriptive names, use action verbs for processes (e.g., update, edit, prepare, validate, etc.). Give each process a sequential number to help the reader navigate from the abstract to the detailed levels. Edit/Review/Refine your DFD to make it easy to read and understand. 3-6
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Flowcharts Describe an information system showing: Inputs and Outputs Information activities (processing data) Data storage Data flows Decision steps Key strengths of flowcharts are that they can easily capture control via decision points, show manual vs. automated processes. 3-7
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Flowcharts Symbols 3-8
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Flowcharts Document: shows the flow of documents and data for a process, useful in evaluating internal controls System: depicts the data processing cycle for a process Program: illustrates the sequence of logic in the system process 3-9
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Guidelines for Drawing Flowcharts Understand the system you are trying to represent. Identify business processes, documents, data flows, and data processing procedures. Organize the flowchart so as it reads from top to bottom and left to right. Name elements descriptively. Edit/Review/Refine to make it easy to read and understand. 3-10
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Business Process Diagrams Is a visual way to represent the activities in a business process Intent is that all business users can easily understand the process from a standard notation (BPMN: Business Process Modeling Notation) Can show the organizational unit performing the activity 3-11
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Business Process Diagram Basic Symbols 3-12
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Payroll Business Process Diagram Example 3-13
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Key Terms Documentation Narrative description Data flow diagram (DFD) Data source Data destination Data flow Process Data store Context diagram Flowchart Document flowchart Internal control flowchart System flowchart Program flowchart Business process diagram (BPD) 3-14
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Unit 2 SO 6 describe data flow diagrams (DFD);Define DFD; identify and describe the four symbols (elements): entity, process, data.
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