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Consequences for Problem Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "Consequences for Problem Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 Consequences for Problem Behavior
Rob Horner, Rhonda Nese University of Oregon

2 Maximizing Your Session Participation
Work with your team Consider 4 questions: Where are we in our implementation? What do I hope to learn? What did I learn? What will I do with what I learned?

3 Objectives Define six elements of an effective discipline system
Define four functions of negative consequences Define strategies for disseminating consequence standards across faculty, students, and families. Define data sources needed to build and sustain Outcomes: Operational definitions of problem behavior Formal rule for what results in an office referral Flow chart (or organizational tool) defining flow of discipline decisions Content of data to be collected about discipline decisions.

4 “Discipline” Defined Latin: disciplina – teaching, learning
1. Instruction 2. training that corrects, molds, or perfects the mental faculties or moral character. 3. A rule, or system of rules, governing conduct. 4. Punishment

5 Discipline System Impact
Increase consistency across schools. Make school a predictable, consistent, positive environment for students. Discipline always starts with teaching, prompting and acknowledging positive behavior School-wide implications Individual student implications

6 Discipline Assumptions and Functions.
Delivering negative consequences for problem behavior is a necessary but insufficient strategy for reducing problem behavior. Always define, teach and acknowledge what you want before you focus on negative consequences Use negative consequences to achieve the following four functions: Prevent a problem behavior from being rewarded Prevent a problem behavior from escalating Prevent a problem behavior from interrupting instruction for others Provide a teaching opportunity (“this behavior is NOT being respectful”)

7 Six Elements of a School Discipline System
1. Policy and Logic 2. Problem Behavior Definitions 3. Discipline Referral Form 4. Guidelines for responding to problem behavior 5. Data System 6. Decision-making Process

8 1. Discipline Policy Purposes of Discipline Policy
Promote positive behavior and reduce problem behavior Comply with federal and state law Coordinate behavior support efforts Ensure safe and effective environments Get students access to needed supports

9 Discipline Policy Critical Elements Define purpose Define roles
Define process for addressing problem behavior Define “rule” for office managed vs staff managed problem behavior. Define data collection expectations


What type of behavior is it? COMPLETE OFFICE REFERRAL Conference with Student Notify Parent ADMINISTER APPROPRIATE CLASSROOM BASED CONSEQUENCES TEACHER MANAGED Calling Out Dress Code Electronic Devices Food/Drink Language Lateness Minor Dishonesty Preparedness Put Down Throwing Tone/Attitude Touching Work Refusal OFFICE MANAGED Aggressive Behavior Bullying/Harassment Chronic/Repetitive Minor Infractions Drugs/Alcohol Fighting Gambling Major Dishonesty Physical Aggression/Contact Truancy Vandalism Weapons PROBLEM SOLVE WITH STUDENT Did behavior resolve? NO WRITE MIR Reinforce Expectations Track Behavior YES Refer to ‘Office Managed Behaviors’ Have there been ≥3 MIR’s for similar behavior? Document interventions ADMINSTRATIVE RESPONSE Administrator investigates written report. Student conduct record is consulted Administrator determines consequence. Administrative staff provides feedback to staff. MINOR INCIDENT REPORTS Used only after classroom interventions have not met with success. Take concrete action to correct behavior (e.g detention, reflective writing, etc.) Corrective actions correspond to demonstrated behavior where possible. Administered with student knowledge.

12 General Procedure for Dealing with Problem Behaviors
Observe problem behavior Problem solve Determine consequence Follow procedure documented File necessary documentation Send referral to office Follow through with consequences procedure Write referral & Escort student to office Follow up with student within a week Is major? Does student have 3? NO YES Find a place to talk with student(s) Ensure safety

13 Your Task Determine if a formal policy exists. If needed, what steps are needed to have one developed? Build a plan for developing a one-page flow chart defining expectations for teacher-managed versus office managed behavioral incidents. Ensure process so all current and new faculty receive orientation to policy

14 2. Definitions for problem behavior developed and taught
Descriptions need to be: Operational Observable and countable Exhaustive All problem behaviors are covered (include an “other”) Mutually Exclusive One problem behavior only goes in one category Simple Use the smallest number of categories possible Useful for decision-making Consider organizing by “levels” to help staff link type of problem behavior to level of consequence

15 Activity: What behavior?
Use SWIS definitions Observe video and select which behavior applies. Rayette Eddie B2 Shane Devin

16 3. Discipline referral form
Examples Readiness Critical Features Requires less than 1 min to complete Minimal use of written text Relevant information Who (name, grade, gender) (students/adult) What (problem behavior) Where (location) When (what time of day With whom (who else was involved) Why (why does this keep happening) Details Administrative Decision

17 Activity: Compare Determine if your ODR form has the relevant information.

18 4. Guidelines for responding to problem behavior
Standards School-wide standard for when problem behavior results in an office referral versus classroom management Level System Major versus minor problem behaviors? Level I, Level II, Level III Defined Intervention options Measurement expectations

19 Purposes of delivering ODR
Interrupt problem behavior Prevent escalation Teach discrimination about what is acceptable “This is not being respectful” Minimize likelihood that problem behavior will be rewarded. Allow education to continue for others Safety Access to instruction

20 Common Guidelines for “minor” versus “major”
Teachers have the authority to manage problem behavior in class (or with a partner) Detention, In-school suspension Think-time Time out (define Time out) Use an office referral if a problem behavior (a) interferes with on-going education of others, (b) threatens safety, or (c) is of a severity requiring more extended intervention (e.g. more than 1 min). Note that in-class interventions may also be included in the on-going data collection system… and are useful for decision-making

21 Think Time (Dr. Ron Nelson)
Used for students who engage in attention-maintained problem behavior in the classroom. Major goal is to reduce reward for problem behavior Relies on two teachers collaborating Establish an open desk in each room Build a “problem solving form” What did you do? What could you have done differently? How will you handle this situation in the future? Teach the “think time” routine Maintain data on application of Think Time Complete an Office Discipline Referral form.

22 ODR, Suspension, Detention not a “treatment intervention”
Never rely on ODR, Suspension, or Detention alone to change behavior. For substantive behavior change incorporate: (a) assessment (to individualize support), (b) instruction on appropriate behavior, (c) on-going acknowledgement of appropriate behavior.

23 How to deliver an ODR, or Detention
Stop or redirect problem behavior Non-emotional voice tone 2 second pause (if possible) Label problem behavior Define what is NOT happening (respect) Deliver consequence Clarify behavioral choices, and your expectation for the student.

24 5. Data System for Consequences
Efficient entry of data into database Continuous, secure, confidential access to data for decision-making Summary a presentation to faculty at least monthly

25 5. Data System for Consequences
Efficient system to summarize and report the data

26 5. Data System for Consequences
Efficient system to summarize and report the data

27 6. Using Data for Decision-making
Fidelity Data Are we doing what we said Impact Data Do students know the positive expectations What do we learn from behavioral errors How often are problems occurring What are the problem behaviors Who is performing the behaviors Where are problem behaviors most and least likely When are problem behaviors most and least likely When they occur what is maintaining repetition of problem behavior


29 Summary Policy Problem behavior definitions Discipline referral form
School-wide standards for delivering discipline System to collect and summarize data Team process to use data for decision-making (problem solving)

30 Communication/ Roll Out Plan
Students Faculty Families Expectations Recognition System Consequence System Data System

31 Communication/ Roll Out Plan
Students Faculty Families Expectations Fall teaching plan Booster events All teach in Fall Newsletter Family Night Student check Recognition System Tokens per student Classroom Whole school? Faculty meeting ? Consequence System Flow chart Data System N/A PBIS Team Annual report

32 Building Effective Consequence Systems in Schools:
Example from Oregon

33 Example: OR Middle School
~600 students enrolled 86% free/reduced lunch 42% non-White 14% ELL 23% IEP New to PBIS: 70% new staff & admin

34 Consequence System: Tasks
Define Classroom vs. Office-managed problem behaviors Develop a flowchart for addressing problem behaviors Gather input from all staff, edit flowchart if needed Disseminate information across staff, students, and families


36 Staff Managed Behaviors Office Managed Behaviors
Tardiness (on 3rd tardy, enter student into Response System) Non-compliance with staff direction Classroom disruption Bullying Inappropriate language Failure to serve teacher assigned reflection Unprepared for class Leaving the classroom without permission Skipping class Inappropriate hallway behavior Inappropriate computer use Inappropriate locker behavior Dress code violation Throwing objects Eating/drinking in class Academic dishonesty Sleeping in class Carrying backpack Electronic devices/cell phones (visible and/or on) Office Managed Behaviors Bomb Threat/False Alarm Possession of a Weapon/Explosive Device Threats of bringing/using Weapons Fighting/Physical Aggression Physical Assault/Harassment Intimidation Sexual Harassment/Sexual Offense Loitering Theft/Burglary Verbal Abuse and/or Threat of Violence Inappropriate Bus Behavior Failure to Identify Oneself Truancy Vandalism/ Property Damage False Fire Alarm or Arson Possession/Distribution/Use of OTC Medication, Controlled Substance, Tobacco, or Alcohol Leaving the Classroom without Permission Forgery/Extortion Gambling Chronic Violation of Teacher Managed Behaviors Possession/Use of Imitation Weapons Possession/Use of Imitation Drugs Possession of Drug Paraphernalia

37 Tardy

38 Behaviors from Referral Form
Used problem behaviors from SWIS Already operationally defined Can describe what the problem “looks like” during staff training Behaviors the staff had already agreed were either a minor or a major



41 Classroom Managed Strategies No? Yes! Level 1 Referral
Minor behavior Disrespect Defiance/non-compliance Disruption Physical contact/aggression Tardy Strategies Re-teach of appropriate behavior Request change in behavior Invitation to self-correct Modify assignment Teacher proximity or visual prompt Student reflection (Think Sheet) Mini-conference with student Break in hallway No? (pick one) Yes! Level 1 Referral Fill out referral Teacher chooses consequences (LD, ASD, apology, etc.) Did the behavior change? Reinforce appropriate behavior and praise

42 Gathered Feedback, and…
Teachers wanted to be able to contact parents before a referral was written Believed that a parent contact could serve as a “strategy” for some students Wanted to keep parents in the loop, especially for ongoing problem behaviors


44 Understanding Office Managed Behaviors
Sending a kid out of class should be a BIG DEAL: Missed instructional time Consumes a great deal of admin time May change the student-teacher relationship Relinquishing authority over classroom behaviors and consequences (what message does it send to the student) When to use: When all classroom strategies have been tried When contact with a parent has been made When it is endangering others When others end up missing instructional time




48 Communication/ Roll Out Plan
Consequence System Students Flowchart walk-through in all classes Flowchart posted on classroom walls Flowchart included in day planners Staff Training on flowchart during staff in-service Check-ins at staff meetings, after data review Refresher after holiday break Families PBIS brief on school website Flowchart shown and discussed at Back to School Night PBIS information packet sent home

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