Presentation on theme: "Consequences for Problem Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Consequences for Problem Behavior Rob Horner, Rhonda NeseUniversity of Oregon
2 Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your teamConsider 4 questions:Where are we in our implementation?What do I hope to learn?What did I learn?What will I do with what I learned?
3 Objectives Define six elements of an effective discipline system Define four functions of negative consequencesDefine strategies for disseminating consequence standards across faculty, students, and families.Define data sources needed to build and sustainOutcomes: Operational definitions of problem behavior Formal rule for what results in an office referralFlow chart (or organizational tool) defining flow ofdiscipline decisionsContent of data to be collected about disciplinedecisions.
4 “Discipline” Defined Latin: disciplina – teaching, learning 1. Instruction2. training that corrects, molds, or perfects the mental faculties or moral character.3. A rule, or system of rules, governing conduct.4. Punishment
5 Discipline System Impact Increase consistency across schools.Make school a predictable, consistent, positive environment for students.Discipline always starts with teaching, prompting and acknowledging positive behaviorSchool-wide implicationsIndividual student implications
6 Discipline Assumptions and Functions. Delivering negative consequences for problem behavior is a necessary but insufficient strategy for reducing problem behavior.Always define, teach and acknowledge what you want before you focus on negative consequencesUse negative consequences to achieve the following four functions:Prevent a problem behavior from being rewardedPrevent a problem behavior from escalatingPrevent a problem behavior from interrupting instruction for othersProvide a teaching opportunity (“this behavior is NOT being respectful”)
7 Six Elements of a School Discipline System 1. Policy and Logic2. Problem BehaviorDefinitions3. Discipline ReferralForm4. Guidelines forresponding toproblem behavior5. Data System6. Decision-makingProcess
8 1. Discipline Policy Purposes of Discipline Policy Promote positive behavior and reduce problem behaviorComply with federal and state lawCoordinate behavior support effortsEnsure safe and effective environmentsGet students access to needed supports
9 Discipline Policy Critical Elements Define purpose Define roles Define process for addressing problem behaviorDefine “rule” for office managed vs staff managed problem behavior.Define data collection expectations
11 OBSERVE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR What type of behavior is it?COMPLETE OFFICE REFERRALConference with StudentNotify ParentADMINISTER APPROPRIATE CLASSROOM BASED CONSEQUENCESTEACHER MANAGEDCalling OutDress CodeElectronic DevicesFood/DrinkLanguageLatenessMinor DishonestyPreparednessPut DownThrowingTone/AttitudeTouchingWork RefusalOFFICE MANAGEDAggressive BehaviorBullying/HarassmentChronic/Repetitive Minor InfractionsDrugs/AlcoholFightingGamblingMajor DishonestyPhysical Aggression/ContactTruancyVandalismWeaponsPROBLEM SOLVE WITH STUDENTDid behavior resolve?NOWRITE MIRReinforce ExpectationsTrack BehaviorYESRefer to ‘Office Managed Behaviors’Have there been ≥3 MIR’s for similar behavior?Document interventionsADMINSTRATIVE RESPONSEAdministrator investigates written report.Student conduct record is consultedAdministrator determines consequence.Administrative staff provides feedback to staff.MINOR INCIDENT REPORTSUsed only after classroom interventions have not met with success.Take concrete action to correct behavior (e.g detention, reflective writing, etc.)Corrective actions correspond to demonstrated behavior where possible.Administered with student knowledge.
12 General Procedure for Dealing with Problem Behaviors Observe problembehaviorProblem solveDetermineconsequenceFollow proceduredocumentedFile necessarydocumentationSendreferral toofficeFollowthrough withconsequencesprocedureWrite referral &Escort student to officeFollow upwith studentwithin aweekIsmajor?Doesstudenthave 3?NOYESFind a place to talk with student(s)Ensure safety
13 Your TaskDetermine if a formal policy exists. If needed, what steps are needed to have one developed?Build a plan for developing a one-page flow chart defining expectations for teacher-managed versus office managed behavioral incidents.Ensure process so all current and new faculty receive orientation to policy
14 2. Definitions for problem behavior developed and taught Descriptions need to be:OperationalObservable and countableExhaustiveAll problem behaviors are covered (include an “other”)Mutually ExclusiveOne problem behavior only goes in one categorySimpleUse the smallest number of categories possibleUseful for decision-makingConsider organizing by “levels” to help staff link type of problem behavior to level of consequence
15 Activity: What behavior? Use SWIS definitionsObserve video and select which behavior applies.RayetteEddieB2ShaneDevin
16 3. Discipline referral form ExamplesReadinessCritical FeaturesRequires less than 1 min to completeMinimal use of written textRelevant informationWho (name, grade, gender) (students/adult)What (problem behavior)Where (location)When (what time of dayWith whom (who else was involved)Why (why does this keep happening)DetailsAdministrative Decision
17 Activity: CompareDetermine if your ODR form has the relevant information.
18 4. Guidelines for responding to problem behavior StandardsSchool-wide standard for when problem behavior results in an office referral versus classroom managementLevel SystemMajor versus minor problem behaviors?Level I, Level II, Level IIIDefinedIntervention optionsMeasurement expectations
19 Purposes of delivering ODR Interrupt problem behaviorPrevent escalationTeach discrimination about what is acceptable“This is not being respectful”Minimize likelihood that problem behavior will be rewarded.Allow education to continue for othersSafetyAccess to instruction
20 Common Guidelines for “minor” versus “major” Teachers have the authority to manage problem behavior in class (or with a partner)Detention, In-school suspensionThink-timeTime out (define Time out)Use an office referral if a problem behavior (a) interferes with on-going education of others, (b) threatens safety, or (c) is of a severity requiring more extended intervention (e.g. more than 1 min).Note that in-class interventions may also be included in the on-going data collection system… and are useful for decision-making
21 Think Time (Dr. Ron Nelson) Used for students who engage in attention-maintained problem behavior in the classroom.Major goal is to reduce reward for problem behaviorRelies on two teachers collaboratingEstablish an open desk in each roomBuild a “problem solving form”What did you do?What could you have done differently?How will you handle this situation in the future?Teach the “think time” routineMaintain data on application of Think TimeComplete an Office Discipline Referral form.
22 ODR, Suspension, Detention not a “treatment intervention” Never rely on ODR, Suspension, or Detention alone to change behavior.For substantive behavior change incorporate:(a) assessment (to individualize support),(b) instruction on appropriate behavior,(c) on-going acknowledgement of appropriate behavior.
23 How to deliver an ODR, or Detention Stop or redirect problem behaviorNon-emotional voice tone2 second pause (if possible)Label problem behaviorDefine what is NOT happening (respect)Deliver consequenceClarify behavioral choices, and your expectation for the student.
24 5. Data System for Consequences Efficient entry of data into databaseContinuous, secure, confidential access to data for decision-makingSummary a presentation to faculty at least monthly
25 5. Data System for Consequences Efficient system to summarize and report the data
26 5. Data System for Consequences Efficient system to summarize and report the data
27 6. Using Data for Decision-making Fidelity DataAre we doing what we saidImpact DataDo students know the positive expectationsWhat do we learn from behavioral errorsHow often are problems occurringWhat are the problem behaviorsWho is performing the behaviorsWhere are problem behaviors most and least likelyWhen are problem behaviors most and least likelyWhen they occur what is maintaining repetition of problem behavior
29 Summary Policy Problem behavior definitions Discipline referral form School-wide standards for delivering disciplineSystem to collect and summarize dataTeam process to use data for decision-making (problem solving)
30 Communication/ Roll Out Plan StudentsFacultyFamiliesExpectationsRecognition SystemConsequence SystemData System
31 Communication/ Roll Out Plan StudentsFacultyFamiliesExpectationsFall teaching planBooster eventsAll teach in FallNewsletterFamily NightStudent checkRecognition SystemTokens per studentClassroomWhole school?Faculty meeting?Consequence SystemFlow chartData SystemN/APBIS TeamAnnual report
32 Building Effective Consequence Systems in Schools: Example from Oregon
33 Example: OR Middle School ~600 students enrolled86% free/reduced lunch42% non-White14% ELL23% IEPNew to PBIS: 70% new staff & admin
34 Consequence System: Tasks Define Classroom vs. Office-managed problem behaviorsDevelop a flowchart for addressing problem behaviorsGather input from all staff, edit flowchart if neededDisseminate information across staff, students, and families
36 Staff Managed Behaviors Office Managed Behaviors Tardiness (on 3rd tardy, enter student into Response System)Non-compliance with staff directionClassroom disruptionBullyingInappropriate languageFailure to serve teacher assigned reflectionUnprepared for classLeaving the classroom without permissionSkipping classInappropriate hallway behaviorInappropriate computer useInappropriate locker behaviorDress code violationThrowing objectsEating/drinking in classAcademic dishonestySleeping in classCarrying backpackElectronic devices/cell phones (visible and/or on)Office Managed BehaviorsBomb Threat/False AlarmPossession of a Weapon/Explosive DeviceThreats of bringing/using WeaponsFighting/Physical AggressionPhysical Assault/HarassmentIntimidationSexual Harassment/Sexual OffenseLoiteringTheft/BurglaryVerbal Abuse and/or Threat of ViolenceInappropriate Bus BehaviorFailure to Identify OneselfTruancyVandalism/ Property DamageFalse Fire Alarm or ArsonPossession/Distribution/Use of OTC Medication, Controlled Substance, Tobacco, or AlcoholLeaving the Classroom without PermissionForgery/ExtortionGamblingChronic Violation of Teacher Managed BehaviorsPossession/Use of Imitation WeaponsPossession/Use of Imitation DrugsPossession of Drug Paraphernalia
38 Behaviors from Referral Form Used problem behaviors from SWISAlready operationally definedCan describe what the problem “looks like” during staff trainingBehaviors the staff had already agreed were either a minor or a major
41 Classroom Managed Strategies No? Yes! Level 1 Referral Minor behaviorDisrespectDefiance/non-complianceDisruptionPhysical contact/aggressionTardyStrategiesRe-teach of appropriate behaviorRequest change in behaviorInvitation to self-correctModify assignmentTeacher proximity or visual promptStudent reflection (Think Sheet)Mini-conference with studentBreak in hallwayNo?(pick one)Yes!Level 1 ReferralFill out referralTeacher chooses consequences (LD, ASD, apology, etc.)Did the behavior change?Reinforce appropriate behavior and praise
42 Gathered Feedback, and… Teachers wanted to be able to contact parents before a referral was writtenBelieved that a parent contact could serve as a “strategy” for some studentsWanted to keep parents in the loop, especially for ongoing problem behaviors
44 Understanding Office Managed Behaviors Sending a kid out of class should be a BIG DEAL:Missed instructional timeConsumes a great deal of admin timeMay change the student-teacher relationshipRelinquishing authority over classroom behaviors and consequences (what message does it send to the student)When to use:When all classroom strategies have been triedWhen contact with a parent has been madeWhen it is endangering othersWhen others end up missing instructional time
48 Communication/ Roll Out Plan Consequence SystemStudentsFlowchart walk-through in all classesFlowchart posted on classroom wallsFlowchart included in day plannersStaffTraining on flowchart during staff in-serviceCheck-ins at staff meetings, after data reviewRefresher after holiday breakFamiliesPBIS brief on school websiteFlowchart shown and discussed at Back to School NightPBIS information packet sent home