Presentation on theme: "Consequences for Problem Behavior Rob Horner, Rhonda Nese University of Oregon."— Presentation transcript:
Consequences for Problem Behavior Rob Horner, Rhonda Nese University of Oregon
Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your team Consider 4 questions: – Where are we in our implementation? – What do I hope to learn? – What did I learn? – What will I do with what I learned? Consider 4 questions: – Where are we in our implementation? – What do I hope to learn? – What did I learn? – What will I do with what I learned?
Objectives Define six elements of an effective discipline system Define four functions of negative consequences Define strategies for disseminating consequence standards across faculty, students, and families. Define data sources needed to build and sustain Outcomes :Operational definitions of problem behavior Formal rule for what results in an office referral Flow chart (or organizational tool) defining flow of discipline decisions Content of data to be collected about discipline decisions.
“Discipline” Defined Latin: disciplina – teaching, learning o 1. Instruction o 2. training that corrects, molds, or perfects the mental faculties or moral character. o 3. A rule, or system of rules, governing conduct. o 4. Punishment
Discipline System Impact Increase consistency across schools. o Make school a predictable, consistent, positive environment for students. Discipline always starts with teaching, prompting and acknowledging positive behavior o School-wide implications o Individual student implications
Discipline Assumptions and Functions. Delivering negative consequences for problem behavior is a necessary but insufficient strategy for reducing problem behavior. o Always define, teach and acknowledge what you want before you focus on negative consequences o Use negative consequences to achieve the following four functions: o Prevent a problem behavior from being rewarded o Prevent a problem behavior from escalating o Prevent a problem behavior from interrupting instruction for others o Provide a teaching opportunity (“this behavior is NOT being respectful”)
Six Elements of a School Discipline System 2. Problem Behavior Definitions 3. Discipline Referral Form 4. Guidelines for responding to problem behavior 5. Data System 6. Decision-making Process 1. Policy and Logic
1. Discipline Policy Purposes of Discipline Policy o Promote positive behavior and reduce problem behavior o Comply with federal and state law o Coordinate behavior support efforts o Ensure safe and effective environments o Get students access to needed supports
Discipline Policy Critical Elements o Define purpose o Define roles o Define process for addressing problem behavior o Define “rule” for office managed vs staff managed problem behavior. o Define data collection expectations
OBSERVE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR What type of behavior is it? COMPLETE OFFICE REFERRAL Conference with Student Notify Parent ADMINISTER APPROPRIATE CLASSROOM BASED CONSEQUENCES TEACHER MANAGED Calling Out Dress Code Electronic Devices Food/Drink Language Lateness Minor Dishonesty Preparedness Put Down Throwing Tone/Attitude Touching Work Refusal OFFICE MANAGED Aggressive Behavior Bullying/Harassment Chronic/Repetitive Minor Infractions Drugs/Alcohol Fighting Gambling Major Dishonesty Physical Aggression/Contact Truancy Vandalism Weapons PROBLEM SOLVE WITH STUDENT Did behavior resolve? NO WRITE MIR Conference with Student Notify Parent Reinforce Expectations Track Behavior YES Refer to ‘Office Managed Behaviors’ Have there been ≥3 MIR’s for similar behavior? NO YES Document interventions Reinforce Expectations ADMINSTRATIVE RESPONSE Administrator investigates written report. Student conduct record is consulted Administrator determines consequence. Administrative staff provides feedback to staff. MINOR INCIDENT REPORTS Used only after classroom interventions have not met with success. Take concrete action to correct behavior (e.g detention, reflective writing, etc.) Corrective actions correspond to demonstrated behavior where possible. Administered with student knowledge.
General Procedure for Dealing with Problem Behaviors Observe problem behavior Problem solve Determine consequence Follow procedure documented File necessary documentation Send referral to office File necessary documentation Determine consequence Follow through with consequences Problem solve Follow documented procedure Write referral & Escort student to office Follow up with student within a week Is behavior major? Does student have 3? NOYES NO YES Find a place to talk with student(s) Ensure safety
Your Task Determine if a formal policy exists. If needed, what steps are needed to have one developed? Build a plan for developing a one-page flow chart defining expectations for teacher-managed versus office managed behavioral incidents. Ensure process so all current and new faculty receive orientation to policy
2. Definitions for problem behavior developed and taught Descriptions need to be: o Operational Observable and countable o Exhaustive All problem behaviors are covered (include an “other”) o Mutually Exclusive One problem behavior only goes in one category o Simple Use the smallest number of categories possible Useful for decision-making Consider organizing by “levels” to help staff link type of problem behavior to level of consequence Definitions
Activity: What behavior? Use SWIS definitions Observe video and select which behavior applies. o Rayette o Eddie o B2 o Shane o Devin
3. Discipline referral form Critical Features o Requires less than 1 min to complete Minimal use of written text o Relevant information Who (name, grade, gender) (students/adult) What (problem behavior) Where (location) When (what time of day With whom (who else was involved) Why (why does this keep happening) Details o Administrative Decision Readiness Examples
Activity: Compare Determine if your ODR form has the relevant information.
4. Guidelines for responding to problem behavior School-wide standard for when problem behavior results in an office referral versus classroom management Level System o Major versus minor problem behaviors? o Level I, Level II, Level III Defined Intervention options Measurement expectations Standards
Purposes of delivering ODR Interrupt problem behavior Prevent escalation Teach discrimination about what is acceptable “This is not being respectful” Minimize likelihood that problem behavior will be rewarded. Allow education to continue for others Safety Access to instruction
Common Guidelines for “minor” versus “major” Teachers have the authority to manage problem behavior in class (or with a partner) Detention, In-school suspension Think-time Time out (define Time out) Use an office referral if a problem behavior (a) interferes with on-going education of others, (b) threatens safety, or (c) is of a severity requiring more extended intervention (e.g. more than 1 min). Note that in-class interventions may also be included in the on-going data collection system… and are useful for decision-making
Think Time (Dr. Ron Nelson) Used for students who engage in attention- maintained problem behavior in the classroom. Major goal is to reduce reward for problem behavior Relies on two teachers collaborating Establish an open desk in each room Build a “problem solving form” What did you do? What could you have done differently? How will you handle this situation in the future? Teach the “think time” routine Maintain data on application of Think Time Complete an Office Discipline Referral form.
ODR, Suspension, Detention not a “treatment intervention” Never rely on ODR, Suspension, or Detention alone to change behavior. For substantive behavior change incorporate: o (a) assessment (to individualize support), o (b) instruction on appropriate behavior, o (c) on-going acknowledgement of appropriate behavior.
How to deliver an ODR, or Detention Stop or redirect problem behavior Non-emotional voice tone 2 second pause (if possible) Label problem behavior Define what is NOT happening (respect) Deliver consequence Clarify behavioral choices, and your expectation for the student.
5. Data System for Consequences Efficient entry of data into database Continuous, secure, confidential access to data for decision-making Summary a presentation to faculty at least monthly
5. Data System for Consequences Efficient system to summarize and report the data
5. Data System for Consequences Efficient system to summarize and report the data
6. Using Data for Decision-making Fidelity Data o Are we doing what we said Impact Data o Do students know the positive expectations o What do we learn from behavioral errors How often are problems occurring What are the problem behaviors Who is performing the behaviors Where are problem behaviors most and least likely When are problem behaviors most and least likely When they occur what is maintaining repetition of problem behavior
Summary Policy Problem behavior definitions Discipline referral form School-wide standards for delivering discipline System to collect and summarize data Team process to use data for decision-making (problem solving)
Communication/ Roll Out Plan StudentsFacultyFamilies Expectations Recognition System Consequence System Data System
Communication/ Roll Out Plan StudentsFacultyFamilies ExpectationsFall teaching plan Booster events All teach in FallNewsletter Family Night Student check Recognition System Tokens per student Classroom Whole school? Faculty meeting? Consequence System ?Flow chart? Data SystemN/AFaculty meeting PBIS Team Annual report Newsletter Family Night
Example from Oregon Building Effective Consequence Systems in Schools:
Example: OR Middle School ~600 students enrolled 86% free/reduced lunch 42% non-White 14% ELL 23% IEP New to PBIS: 70% new staff & admin
Consequence System: Tasks 1. Define Classroom vs. Office-managed problem behaviors 2. Develop a flowchart for addressing problem behaviors 3. Gather input from all staff, edit flowchart if needed 4. Disseminate information across staff, students, and families
Staff Managed Behaviors 1Tardiness (on 3 rd tardy, enter student into Response System) 2Non-compliance with staff direction 3Classroom disruption 4Bullying 5Inappropriate language 6Failure to serve teacher assigned reflection 7Unprepared for class 8Leaving the classroom without permission 9Skipping class 1Inappropriate hallway behavior 1Inappropriate computer use 1Inappropriate locker behavior 1Dress code violation 1Throwing objects 1Eating/drinking in class 1Academic dishonesty 1Sleeping in class 1Carrying backpack 1Electronic devices/cell phones (visible and/or on) Office Managed Behaviors 1Bomb Threat/False Alarm 2Possession of a Weapon/Explosive Device 3Threats of bringing/using Weapons 4Fighting/Physical Aggression 5Physical Assault/Harassment 6Intimidation 7Sexual Harassment/Sexual Offense 8Loitering 9Theft/Burglary 1Verbal Abuse and/or Threat of Violence 1Inappropriate Bus Behavior 1Failure to Identify Oneself 1Truancy 1Vandalism/ Property Damage 1False Fire Alarm or Arson 1Possession/Distribution/Use of OTC Medication, Controlled Substance, Tobacco, or Alcohol 1Leaving the Classroom without Permission 1Forgery/Extortion 1Gambling 2Chronic Violation of Teacher Managed Behaviors 2Possession/Use of Imitation Weapons 2Possession/Use of Imitation Drugs 2Possession of Drug Paraphernalia
Behaviors from Referral Form Used problem behaviors from SWIS Already operationally defined Can describe what the problem “looks like” during staff training Behaviors the staff had already agreed were either a minor or a major
Level 1 Referral Fill out referral Teacher chooses consequences (LD, ASD, apology, etc.) No? (pick one) Minor behavior Disrespect Defiance/non-compliance Disruption Physical contact/aggression Tardy Classroom Managed Strategies Re-teach of appropriate behavior Request change in behavior Invitation to self-correct Modify assignment Teacher proximity or visual prompt Student reflection (Think Sheet) Mini-conference with student Break in hallway Did the behavior change? Yes! Reinforce appropriate behavior and praise
Gathered Feedback, and… Teachers wanted to be able to contact parents before a referral was written Believed that a parent contact could serve as a “strategy” for some students Wanted to keep parents in the loop, especially for ongoing problem behaviors
Understanding Office Managed Behaviors Sending a kid out of class should be a BIG DEAL: Missed instructional time Consumes a great deal of admin time May change the student-teacher relationship Relinquishing authority over classroom behaviors and consequences (what message does it send to the student) When to use: When all classroom strategies have been tried When contact with a parent has been made When it is endangering others When others end up missing instructional time
Communication/ Roll Out Plan Consequence System Students Flowchart walk-through in all classes Flowchart posted on classroom walls Flowchart included in day planners Staff Training on flowchart during staff in-service Check-ins at staff meetings, after data review Refresher after holiday break Families PBIS brief on school website Flowchart shown and discussed at Back to School Night PBIS information packet sent home