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Java Planning our Programs Flowcharts Arithmetic Operators

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Planning Programs It is very important to plan our programs before we start coding There are two ways of planning a program; 1. Pseudo-code = makes use of English statements to plot the program 2. Flowcharts = use graphical symbols

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Example Lets say we had the following program class VariablesExample { public static void main (String args[]){ //variables are declared and assigned int N1 = 50; int N2 = 13; int tot; //the total of variables N1 and N2 //is stored in tot tot = N1 + N2; //Finally, we can show the result System.out.println(tot); }

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Pseudo-code Plan The following is the Pseudo-code Plan for the previous program; 1. Start 2. Store 50 in N1. 3. Store 13 in N2. 4. Add N1 to N2 and store result in tot. 5. Display the value in tot. 6. Stop

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Flowchart Plan The following is the Flowchart Plan of the previous program; Start N1 = 50 N2 = 13 tot = N1 + N2 Display tot End

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Why do we Plan Programs? We plan our programs in order to know what we will be doing before we start coding With a plan it will be much easier to know what structure our program will have Planning makes programming much easier

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Flowcharts A flowchart is basically a graphical presentation of our program A flowchart is very is to read and understand Flowcharts break down our programs into many steps

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Flowchart Symbols

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Terminator The terminator is used to show 1. The start and 2. The end of a program START END

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Process A process is any action to be done by the program N1 = 50 N2 = 13 The process in this case is declaring two variables

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Decision Decision are used when we have a comparison Decisions have two outputs which are YES or NO. Is it Raining? YES NO

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Input/Output The Input/ Output symbol is used 1. When the program requires and input 2. When the program results in an output Display tot In this case the output to be shown is the contents of tot

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Try it out … Create 1. The pseudo-codes plan 2. The flowchart plan for the following program; class Variable{ public static void main (String args[]){ //variables are declared and assigned int N1 = 20; int N2 = 10; int tot; int tot2; //tot1 and tot 2 declared tot = N1 + N2; tot2 = N1 – N2; //Finally, we can show the result System.out.println(tot2); }

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Arithmetic Operators Arithmetic Operators are used to perform mathematical calculations The basic arithmetic operators ; 1. + (addition) 2. - (subtraction) 3. / (division) 4. * (multiplication) 5. % (remainder) These are called binary operators because they need to use at least two variables

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Unary Operators Then are also what we call unary operators These only need one variable 1. ++ (increment by 1) 2. -- (decrement by 1) 3. variable += x (same as variable = variable + x) 4. variable - = x (same as variable = variable - x) 5. variable *= x (same as variable = variable * x) 6. variable /= x (same as variable = variable / x) 7. variable %= x (same as variable = variable % x)

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Combining Operators We could create a formula by combining a number of operators The order the operators are work out is the following; 1. Multiplication 2. Division 3. Remainder 4. Addition 5. Subtraction X = 10 + 4 * 3 / 2; 10 + 4 * 3 / 2 10 + 12 / 2 10 + 6 16

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Use of Brackets When we use brackets in our formula we are telling the program which operations to calculate first X = (10 + 4) * 3 / 2; (10 + 4 ) * 3 / 2 14 * 3 / 2 42 / 2 21 As we can see the result has changed!!

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1 Operators and Expressions Instructor: Mainak Chaudhuri

1 Operators and Expressions Instructor: Mainak Chaudhuri

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