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報告者：許之馨 授課老師：任維廉 教授

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Introduction Decision-tree model Decision-tree flowcharts Major characteristics of the study Selecting appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics Secondary analyses Caveats and disclaimers Summary 2

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Research is a systematic process of inquiry. Determine exactly what statistical procedures to use in analyzing the results in design phase. Characteristics of the research determine what statistical procedures to use. 3

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Organize the process of systematically determining appropriate statistical procedures. Decision-tree model is organized in five decision-tree flowcharts. 4

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The procedures for determining an appropriate statistical analysis 1. Describe the study. 2. Identify the study’s major characteristics. 3. Make systematic decisions, but now using the flowcharts. 5

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1. Level of constraint? 2. Independent variables? 3. Levels of the independent variables? 4. Type of design? 5. Dependent variables what they are how they are measured levels of measurement type of data for each 8. 11

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9. Research hypotheses? 10. What kind of test is needed? Dependent measureLevels of measurementType of data Score on the social-skills multiple-choice test RatioScore Ranking of subjects on social competence OrdinalOrdered Independent classification of social competence Nominal 12

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Descriptive Statistics using statistic to describe the characteristics of the data Inferential Statistics according to sample infer the characteristics of the population 13

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Different type of data use different flowchart. If study has more than one research hypotheses, we would find the correct descriptive and inferential statistics for all dependent measures. 14

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After completing descriptive and inferential analyses. Categories Post hoc analyses Secondary analyses to help explain results Data snooping 15

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Inferential statistics portion there are other kinds of questions not covered by the set of flowchart. The statistical procedures suggested by the flowcharts are not only appropriate procedures for answering a specific question. 16

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Selecting an appropriate statistical procedure is often one of the most confusing steps in the research process for beginning students. A flowchart system is presented that organizes for students a process of selecting an appropriate statistical procedures. 17

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Thanks for your attention Q&A 18

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