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TECH Computer Science String Matching detecting the occurrence of a particular substring (pattern) in another string (text) A straightforward Solution The Knuth-Morris-Pratt Algorithm The Boyer-Moore Algorithm

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Straightforward solution Algorithm: Simple string matching Input: P and T, the pattern and text strings; m, the length of P. The pattern is assumed to be nonempty. Output: The return value is the index in T where a copy of P begins, or -1 if no match for P is found.

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int simpleScan(char[] P,char[] T,int m) int match //value to return. int i,j,k; match = -1; j=1;k=1; i=j; while(endText(T,j)==false) if( k>m ) match = i; //match found. break; if(t j == p k ) j++; k++; else //Back up over matched characters. int backup=k-1; j = j-backup; k = k-backup; //Slide pattern forward,start over. j++; i=j; return match;

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Analysis Worst-case complexity is in (mn) Need to back up. Works quite well on average for natural language.

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Finite Automata Terminologies : the alphabet *: the set of all finite-length strings formed using characters from . xy: concatenation of two strings x and y. Prefix: a string w is a prefix of a string x if x=wy for some string y *. Suffix: a string w is a suffix of a string x if x= yw for some string y *.

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Finite Automata (cont’d)

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Finite Automata, e.g.,

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Algorithm

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The Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm 1.Skip outer iteration I =3 2.Skip first inner iteration testing “n” vs “n” at outer iteration i=4

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Strategy In general, if there is a partial match of j chars starting at i, then we know what is in position T[i]…T[i+j-1]. So we can save by 1.Skip outer iterations (for which no match possible) 2.Skip inner iterations (when no need to test know matches). When a mismatch occurs, we want to slide P forward, but maintain the longest overlap of a prefix of P with a suffix of the part of the text that has matched the pattern so far. KMP algorithm achieves linear time performance by capitalizing on the observation above, via building a simplified finite automaton: each node has only two links, success and fail.

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Sliding the pattern for the KMP algorithm

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The Knuth-Morris-Pratt Flowchart Character labels are inside the nodes Each node has two arrows out to other nodes: success link, or fail link next character is read only after a success link A special node, node 0, called “get next char” which read in next text character. e.g. P = “ABABCB”

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Construction of the KMP Flowchart Definition:Fail links We define fail[k] as the largest r (with r

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Algorithm: KMP flowchart construction Input: P,a string of characters;m,the length of P. Output: fail,the array of failure links,defined for indexes 1,...,m.The array is passed in and the algorithm fills it. Step: void kmpSetup(char[] P, int m, int[] fail) int k,s 1. fail[1]=0; 2. for(k=2;k<=m;k++) 3. s=fail[k-1]; 4. while(s>=1) 5. if(p s ==p k-1 ) 6. break; 7. s=fail[s]; 8. fail[k]=s+1;

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The Knuth-Morris-Pratt Scan Algorithm int kmpScan(char[] P,char[] T,int m,int[] fail) int match, j,k; match= -1; j=1; k=1; while(endText(T,j)==false) if(k>m) match = j-m; break; if(k==0) j++; k=1; else if(t j ==p k ) j++; k++; else //Follow fail arrow. k=fail[k]; //continue loop. return match;

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Analysis KMP Flowchart Construction require 2m – 3 character comparisons in the worst case The scan algorithm requires 2n character comparisons in the worst case Overall: Worst case complexity is (n+m)

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The Boyer-Moore Algorithm

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Algorithm:Computing Jumps for the Boyer-Morre Algorithm Input:Pattern string P:m the length of P;alphabet size alpha=| | Output:Array charJump,defined on indexes 0,....,alpha-1.The array is passed in and the algorithm fills it. void computeJumps(char[] P,int m,int alpha,int[] charJump) char ch; int k; for (ch=0;ch

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Computing matchJump

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Computing matchjump (e.g.,)

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BoyerMooreScan Algorithm

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Summary Straightforward algorithm: O(nm) Finite-automata algorithm: O(n) KMP algorithm: O(n+m) Relatively easier to implement Do not require random access to the text BM algorithm: O(n+m), worst, sublinear average Fewer character comparison The algorithm of choice in practice for string matcing

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