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**UNIT 2. Introduction to Computer Programming**

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**UNIT 2. Introduction to Computer Programming**

Algorithm & Flowcharting COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**Algorithm & Flowcharting**

A list of instruction that carries out a process step by step Flowchart A diagram representing the logical sequence in which a combination of steps or operations is to be performed Is usually a visual representation of an algorithm Types of Flowchart: Program Flowchart Describes graphically in detail the logical operations & steps within a program System Flowchart A graphic representation of procedures involved in converting data or input to data in output form. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming**

Advantages of Flowchart Language independent Enforces user to give attention to significant matters Provides an alternative to the usual narrative description Easier to understand Limitations Do not represent a programming language Can’t be viewed as a natural means of communication Certain details often require a long sequence of interconnected symbols Does not convey why a given set of operations is made Do not highlight the important detail since each step receives as much attention in a flowchart as any other. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming**

Flowcharting Symbols Parallelogram Input / Output Rectangle Processing Diamond Decision Small Circle On-page Connector Pentagon Off-page Connector Arrow Heads Flow Direction Indicators Horizontal / Vertical Lines --- Flow Lines Oval Terminal COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**Examples for Sequential**

The radius of a circle is equal to 1 unit. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart to compute the corresponding area of the circle and print out the value of the radius and the area. Given three(3) numbers A,B and C. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart to compute and print out the sum, the average and the product of these values. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**Examples for Branching**

The ABC manufacturing company plans to give a year-end bonus to each of its employees. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart which will compute the bonus of an employee. Consider the following criteria: If the employee’s monthly salary is less than 1,000, the bonus is 50% of the salary. If the salary is grater than 1,000, the bonus is 1,000. Print out the name and corresponding bonus of the employee. Given two (2) numbers, x and y. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart to determine the difference between x and y. If x-y is negative, compute R=x+y; if x-y is zero, compute R=2x+2y; and if x-y is positive, compute R=x*y. Ptint out the values, x, y and R. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming**

Loops and Counter Looping Used when it is desired to make the same calculation of more than one set of data. It consists of repeating a program, or a section of program and substituting new data for each repetition. Counter Is a setup in a program loop to keep track of a number of times the program segment is repeated. The program can then be terminated after the completion of a predetermined number of passes. Steps in Loop Control Initialization The value of counter is initially set equal to zero or one. Test for limit condition Before the logic flow gets out of a loop, a loop terminating condition must first be satisfied. Incrementation Often each loop is executed, 1 is added to the counter. Thus counter reflects the number of times the operation has been performed. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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**COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming**

Examples for Looping The initial value of the radius of a circle is equal to one unit and each succeeding radius is one unit greater than the values before it. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart to compute the area of the circle starting with R=1.0 up to R=5.0, then print out each radius and corresponding area of the circle. Given a set of five (5) numbers that includes both positive and negative data values. Make an algorithm and draw a flowchart to read in these values one at a time and count the number of positive values (including zero value) and the number of negative values found in the set. After the required values are determined, print out these counted values. COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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Structured Program Development Outline 2.1Introduction 2.2Algorithms 2.3Pseudo code 2.4Control Structures 2.5The If Selection Structure 2.6The If/Else.

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