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Prof. B. I. Khodanpur HOD – Dept. of CSE R. V. College of Engineering

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1 Prof. B. I. Khodanpur HOD – Dept. of CSE R. V. College of Engineering
Prof. B. I. Khodanpur HOD – Dept. of CSE R. V. College of Engineering. ID: Subject: Computer Fundamentals (For EDUSAT) Common Paper for BA / B.Com / B.Sc Code: CS-54

2 Types of OS: Single User Systems Multi User Systems
Operating System can also be classified as,- Single User Systems Multi User Systems

3 Single User Systems: Provides a platform for only one user at a time.
They are popularly associated with Desk Top operating system which run on standalone systems where no user accounts are required. Example: DOS

4 Multi-User Systems: Provides regulated access for a number of users by maintaining a database of known users. Refers to computer systems that support two or more simultaneous users. Another term for multi-user is time sharing. Ex: All mainframes and  are multi-user systems. Example: Unix

5 Contents Today's Topic: Problem Solving Techniques We will learn
Problem Statement. Algorithm Types, Example Flowchart Symbols, Examples.

6 Problem Solving Techniques

7 Problem Statement: Problem Statement help diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, helpful tools at this stage include Algorithms and flowcharts for identifying the expected steps of a process. Therefore to solve any problem, Collect and analyze information and data Talk with people familiar with the problem If at all possible, view the problem first hand Confirm all findings

8 Algorithm: The algorithm is part of the blueprint or plan for the computer program, an algorithm is: “An effective procedure for solving a class of problems in a finite number of steps.” Every algorithm should have the following 5 characteristic feature: Input Output Definiteness Effectiveness Termination

9 Algorithm (Contd…): To find largest of three numbers Start
Read 3 numbers: num1, num2, num3 if num1 > num2 then go to step 5 if num2 > num3 then print num2 is largest else print num3 is largest goto step 6 if num1 > num3 then print num1 is largest end.

10 Algorithm (Contd…): Example: One of the simplest algorithms is to find the largest number in an (unsorted) list of numbers. High-level description: Assume the first item is largest. Look at each of the remaining items in the list and if it is larger than the largest item so far, make a note of it. The last noted item is the largest in the list when the process is complete.

11 Algorithm (Contd…): Formal description: Written in prose but much closer to the high-level language of a computer program, the following is the more formal coding of the algorithm in pseudo code (find the largest number in an (unsorted) list of numbers) Algorithm LargestNumber Input: A non-empty list of numbers L. Output: The largest number in the list L. largest ← L0 for each item in the list L, do if the item > largest, then largest ← the item return largest

12 Flowchart: What is a Flowchart?
The flowchart is a means of visually presenting the flow of control through an information processing systems, the operations performed within the system and the sequence in which they are performed. It is a graphic representation of how a process works, showing, at a minimum, the sequence of steps. Flowcharts are generally drawn in the early stages of formulating computer solutions.

13 Flowchart (Contd…): Guideline for drawing a flowchart:
Flowcharts are usually drawn using some standard symbols; Some standard symbols, which are frequently required for flowcharting many computer programs are shown below,-

14 Flowchart (Contd…): A set of useful standard Flowchart symbols:
Rounded box use it to represent an event which occurs automatically. Rectangle or box use it to represent an event which is controlled within the process. Typically this will be a step or action which is taken. Diamond use it to represent a decision point in the process. Circle use it to represent a point at which the flowchart connects with another process.

Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system Effective analysis: Problem can be analyzed in more effective way. Proper documentation: Flowcharts serve as a good program documentation Efficient Coding: Flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase.

Proper Debugging: Flowchart helps in debugging process. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart.

17 Flow chart of the while loop :

18 Flow chart of the for loop:

19 The flow chart of the if statement:

20 The flow chart of the if…else statement:

21 The flow chart of the switch statement:

22 Flowchart for finding the sum of first five natural numbers ( i. e

23 Flowchart (Example): Flowchart to find the sum of first 50 natural numbers.

24 Flow Chart to find largest of two numbers:
Start Read A, B Is A > B Yes No Print B Print A End

25 Flowchart to find the largest of three numbers A,B, and C:

Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case, flowchart becomes complex and clumsy. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem.

27 Flowchart (Exercise):
Draw a flowchart to depict all steps that you do reach your college. Draw Flowchart for Linear search.

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