Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 23C Digestive System Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23C Digestive System Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23C Digestive System Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education

2 Digestive System Introduction/Overview Functional Anatomy Physiology of Digestion & Absorption Chemical Digestion Absorption

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion –Catabolic; macromolecules  monomers small enough for absorption Enzymes –Intrinsic and accessory gland enzymes break down food Hydrolysis –Water is added to break bonds

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion of Carbohydrates Only monosaccharides can be absorbed Monosaccharides absorbed as ingested –Glucose, fructose, galactose Digestive enzymes –Salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, and brush border enzymes (dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrase) –Break down disaccharides sucrose, lactose, maltose; polysaccharides glycogen and starch

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion of Carbohydrates Starch digestion –Salivary amylase (saliva)  oligosaccharides at pH 6.75 – 7.00 –Pancreatic amylase (small intestine)  breaks down any that escaped salivary amylase  oligosaccharides –Brush border enzymes (dextrinase, glucoamylase, lactase, maltase, sucrase)  oligosaccharides  monosaccharides

6 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.32 Flowchart of digestion and absorption of foodstuffs. (1 of 4) Foodstuff Enzyme(s) and source Site of actionPath of absorption Starch and disaccharides Oligosaccharides and disaccharides Carbohydrate digestion Lactose Maltose Sucrose GalactoseGlucoseFructose Salivary amylase Pancreatic amylase Brush border enzymes in small intestine (dextrinase, gluco- amylase, lactase, maltase, and sucrase) Mouth Small intestine Small intestine Glucose and galactose are absorbed via cotransport with sodium ions. Fructose passes via facilitated diffusion. All monosaccharides leave the epithelial cells via facilitated diffusion, enter the capillary blood in the villi, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion of Proteins Source is dietary, digestive enzymes, mucosal cells; digested to amino acid monomers Begins with pepsin in stomach at pH 1.5 – 2.5 –Inactive in high pH of duodenum Pancreatic proteases –Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase Brush border enzymes –Aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and dipeptidases

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.33 Protein digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Slide 1 Lumen of intestine Pancreatic proteases Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Na + Absorptive epithelial cell Apical membrane (microvilli) Amino acid carrier Capillary Proteins and protein fragments are digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy- peptidase), and by brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidase) of mucosal cells. The amino acids are then absorbed by active transport into the absorptive cells, and move to their opposite side. The amino acids leave the villus epithelial cell by facilitated diffusion and enter the capillary via intercellular clefts. Na + 1 2 3

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.33 Protein digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Slide 2 Lumen of intestine Pancreatic proteases Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Na + Absorptive epithelial cell Apical membrane (microvilli) Capillary Proteins and protein fragments are digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy- peptidase), and by brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidase) of mucosal cells. Na + 1

10 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.33 Protein digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Slide 3 Lumen of intestine Pancreatic proteases Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Na + Absorptive epithelial cell Apical membrane (microvilli) Amino acid carrier Capillary Proteins and protein fragments are digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy- peptidase), and by brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidase) of mucosal cells. The amino acids are then absorbed by active transport into the absorptive cells, and move to their opposite side. Na + 1 2

11 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.33 Protein digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Slide 4 Lumen of intestine Pancreatic proteases Amino acids of protein fragments Brush border enzymes Na + Absorptive epithelial cell Apical membrane (microvilli) Amino acid carrier Capillary Proteins and protein fragments are digested to amino acids by pancreatic proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy- peptidase), and by brush border enzymes (carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase, and dipeptidase) of mucosal cells. The amino acids are then absorbed by active transport into the absorptive cells, and move to their opposite side. The amino acids leave the villus epithelial cell by facilitated diffusion and enter the capillary via intercellular clefts. Na + 1 2 3

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.32 Flowchart of digestion and absorption of foodstuffs. (2 of 4) Protein digestion Proteins Large polypeptides Small polypeptides, small peptides Amino acids (some dipeptides and tripeptides) Pepsin (stomach glands) in presence of HCl Pancreatic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase) Brush border enzymes (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase) Stomach Small intestine Small intestine Amino acids are absorbed via cotransport with sodium ions. Some dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed via cotransport with H + and hydrolyzed to amino acids within the cells. Infrequently, transcytosis of small peptides occurs. Amino acids leave the epithelial cells by facilitated diffusion, enter the capillary blood in the villi, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. FoodstuffEnzyme(s) and sourceSite of actionPath of absorption

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion of Lipids Pre-treatment—emulsification by bile salts –Does not break bonds Enzymes—pancreatic lipases –  Fatty acids and monoglycerides

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fat globule Bile salts in the duodenum emulsify large fat globules (physically break them up into smaller fat droplets). Digestion of fat by the pancreatic enzyme lipase yields free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then associate with bile salts to form micelles which “ferry” them to the intestinal mucosa. Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts Bile salts Fat droplets coated with bile salts Fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles and diffuse into epithelial cells. There they are recombined and packaged with other fatty substances and proteins to form chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are extruded from the epithelial cells by exocytosis. The chylomicrons enter lacteals and are carried away from the intestine in lymph. Lacteal Epithelial cells of small intestine 1 2 3 4 Figure 23.34 Emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Slide 1

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fat globule Bile salts in the duodenum emulsify large fat globules (physically break them up into smaller fat droplets). Bile salts Fat droplets coated with bile salts 1 Figure 23.34 Emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Slide 1

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fat globule Bile salts in the duodenum emulsify large fat globules (physically break them up into smaller fat droplets). Digestion of fat by the pancreatic enzyme lipase yields free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then associate with bile salts to form micelles which “ferry” them to the intestinal mucosa. Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts Bile salts Fat droplets coated with bile salts 1 2 Figure 23.34 Emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Slide 3

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fat globule Bile salts in the duodenum emulsify large fat globules (physically break them up into smaller fat droplets). Digestion of fat by the pancreatic enzyme lipase yields free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then associate with bile salts to form micelles which “ferry” them to the intestinal mucosa. Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts Bile salts Fat droplets coated with bile salts Fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles and diffuse into epithelial cells. There they are recombined and packaged with other fatty substances and proteins to form chylomicrons. Lacteal Epithelial cells of small intestine 1 2 3 Figure 23.34 Emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Slide 4

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Fat globule Bile salts in the duodenum emulsify large fat globules (physically break them up into smaller fat droplets). Digestion of fat by the pancreatic enzyme lipase yields free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These then associate with bile salts to form micelles which “ferry” them to the intestinal mucosa. Micelles made up of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts Bile salts Fat droplets coated with bile salts Fatty acids and monoglycerides leave micelles and diffuse into epithelial cells. There they are recombined and packaged with other fatty substances and proteins to form chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are extruded from the epithelial cells by exocytosis. The chylomicrons enter lacteals and are carried away from the intestine in lymph. Lacteal Epithelial cells of small intestine 1 2 3 4 Figure 23.34 Emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fats. Slide 5

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.32 Flowchart of digestion and absorption of foodstuffs. (3 of 4) Fat digestion Unemulsified triglycerides Lingual lipase Gastric lipase Emulsification by the detergent action of bile salts ducted in from the liver Pancreatic lipases Monoglycerides (or diglycerides with gastric lipase) and fatty acids Mouth Stomach Small intestine Small intestine Fatty acids and monoglycerides enter the intestinal cells via diffusion. Fatty acids and monoglycerides are recombined to form triglycerides and then combined with other lipids and proteins within the cells. The resulting chylomicrons are extruded by exocytosis. The chylomicrons enter the lacteals of the villi and are transported to the systemic circulation via the lymph in the thoracic duct. Some short-chain fatty acids are absorbed, move into the capillary blood in the villi by diffusion, and are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. FoodstuffEnzyme(s) and sourceSite of actionPath of absorption

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Enzymes –Pancreatic ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease  nucleotide monomers –Brush border enzyme nucleosidases and phosphatases  free bases, pentose sugars, phosphate ions

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.32 Flowchart of digestion and absorption of foodstuffs. (4 of 4) Nucleic acid digestion Nucleic acids Pentose sugars, N-containing bases, phosphate ions Pancreatic ribo- nuclease and deoxyribonuclease Brush border enzymes (nucleosidases and phosphatases) Small intestine Small intestine Units enter intestinal cells by active transport via membrane carriers. Units are absorbed into capillary blood in the villi and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. FoodstuffEnzyme(s) and sourceSite of actionPath of absorption

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption ~ All food; 80% electrolytes; most water absorbed in small intestine –Most prior to ileum Ileum reclaims bile salts Most absorbed by active transport  blood –Exception - lipids

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Carbohydrates Glucose and galactose –Secondary active transport (cotransport) with Na +  epithelial cells –Move out of epithelial cells by facilitated diffusion  capillary beds in villi Fructose –Facilitated diffusion to enter and exit cells

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Carbohydrates Glucose and galactose –Secondary active transport (cotransport) with Na +  epithelial cells –Move out of epithelial cells by facilitated diffusion  capillary beds in villi Fructose –Facilitated diffusion to enter and exit cells

25 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Protein Amino acids transported by several types of carriers –Most coupled to active transport of Na + Dipeptides and tripeptides actively absorbed by H + -dependent cotransport; digested to amino acids within epithelial cells Enter capillary blood by diffusion

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Whole proteins not usually absorbed Can be taken up by endocytosis/exocytosis –Most common in newborns  food allergies Usually disappear with mucosa maturation –Allows IgA antibodies in breast milk to reach infant's bloodstream  passive immunity

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Lipids Absorption of monoglycerides and fatty acids –Cluster with bile salts and lecithin to form micelles –Released by micelles to diffuse into epithelial cells –Combined with lecithin, phospholipids, cholesterol, & coated with proteins to form chylomicrons –Enter lacteals; transported to systemic circulation –Hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and glycerol by lipoprotein lipase of capillary endothelium Cells can use for energy or stored fat Absorption of short chain fatty acids –Diffuse into portal blood for distribution

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Nucleic Acids Absorption –Active transport across epithelium  bloodstream

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Vitamins In small intestine –Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) carried by micelles; diffuse into absorptive cells –Water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C and B vitamins) absorbed by diffusion or by passive or active transporters. –Vitamin B 12 (large, charged molecule) binds with intrinsic factor, and is absorbed by endocytosis

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Vitamins In large intestine –Vitamin K and B vitamins from bacterial metabolism are absorbed

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Electrolytes Most ions actively along length of small intestine Iron and calcium are absorbed in duodenum Na + coupled with active absorption of glucose and amino acids Cl – transported actively K + diffuses in response to osmotic gradients; lost if poor water absorption Usually amount in intestine is amount absorbed

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Electrolytes Iron and calcium absorption related to need –Ionic iron stored in mucosal cells with ferritin –When needed, transported in blood by transferrin Ca 2+ absorption regulated by vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH)

33 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Absorption of Water 9 L water, most from GI tract secretions, enter small intestine –95% absorbed in the small intestine by osmosis –Most of rest absorbed in large intestine Net osmosis occurs if concentration gradient established by active transport of solutes Water uptake coupled with solute uptake

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Malabsorption of Nutrients Causes –Anything that interferes with delivery of bile or pancreatic juice –Damaged intestinal mucosa (e.g., bacterial infection; some antibiotics)

35 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Malabsorption of Nutrients Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease) –Immune reaction to gluten –Gluten causes immune cell damage to intestinal villi and brush border –Treated by eliminating gluten from diet (all grains but rice and corn)

36 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects Oral membrane  mouth opening Cloacal membrane  anus By week 5 alimentary canal continuous tube from mouth to anus Shortly after, accessory organs bud from mucosa

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 23.36 Embryonic development of the digestive system. Brain Oral membrane Heart Yolk sac Cloacal membrane Body stalk Endoderm Proctodeum Hindgut Spinal cord Midgut Site of liver development Foregut Stomodeum Lung bud LiverStomach Bile duct Cystic duct Gall- bladder Ventral pancreatic bud Dorsal pancreatic bud Duodenum

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Cleft palate and cleft lip Tracheoesophageal fistula –Opening between esophagus and trachea Cystic fibrosis –Genetic disease  thick mucus  can block pancreatic duct

39 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects Fetal nutrition via placenta, but GI tract stimulated to mature by amniotic fluid swallowed in utero Newborn's rooting reflex helps infant find nipple; sucking reflex aids in swallowing Newborns double birth weight in six months; adult diet by 2 years Cholecystitis, ulcers – problems of middle age

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Developmental Aspects During old age –GI tract activity declines, less digestive juice, absorption less efficient, peristalsis slows  less frequent bowel movements –Taste/smell less acute; periodontal disease often develops –Diverticulosis, fecal incontinence, and cancer of GI tract fairly common

41 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Cancer Stomach and colon cancers rarely have early signs or symptoms Metastasized colon cancers frequently cause secondary liver cancer Prevention –Regular dental and medical examination


Download ppt "Chapter 23C Digestive System Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google