Presentation on theme: "A simplified Flow Chart for Thermal Science Energy Conservation Irreversibility Availability Q:heat W: work Euler’s Eqn. Navier Stoke’s Eqn. Bernoulli’s."— Presentation transcript:
A simplified Flow Chart for Thermal Science Energy Conservation Irreversibility Availability Q:heat W: work Euler’s Eqn. Navier Stoke’s Eqn. Bernoulli’s Eqn Mech. Energy Cons. Note: this is only a brief overview of thermal science. Principles governing these physical phenomena have been greatly simplified in order to illustrate the inter-connectivity between disciplines.
A complete thermal system: Solar Power Plant Heat received by collector due to solar irradiation. Heat transfer to working fluid (oil or molten salt) by convection and conduction. High-temperature fluid heats water into steam via heat exchanger. Steam flows through typical thermodynamic cycle(s) (ex. Rankine cycle) to generate electricity Cycle consists of a series of processes (ex. isentropic expansion in turbine, isentropic compression in pump, heat loss to condenser.) Work and energy balance will be calculated using 1st law of thermodynamics and thermal properties of working fluids. Fluid principles be used to analyze flow work in pump and turbine, pressure loss in piping system, convection in solar collectors. Thermal efficiency and availability calculated using 2nd law of thermodynamics
Thermal Systems: Solar Power Plant Wind Energy Power Plant Jet Engine Internal Combustion Engine Refrigeration & Heating Equipment Thermal Bubble Inkjet Printer Electronic Cooling Package Energy Exchange Solar Irradiation Wind Energy Fossil Fuels (Chemical Energy) Electric Energy Thermal Energy Work Input and Output Generate Electrical Energy Transform into Mechanical Energy Electric Energy Input Inkjet Printing Wasteful Byproducts: Thermal Pollution Air/Water Pollution Toxic Contamination Q: Heat Transfer W: Work U: Internal Energy Change
Relevant Issues: Understand fundamentals of thermal science Improve efficiency of existing thermal system Reduce environmental pollution Greenhouse effect, ozone depletion Devise innovative thermal technology Interdisciplinary knowledge is required Methodology used: System definition and modeling Thermal properties identification Apply engineering principles Mass, momentum, energy conservation First and Second laws of Thermodynamics Heat transfer modes Energy Balance: Process U = Q – W, Cycle U = 0, Q cycle =W cycle Thermal Efficiency: Power cycle = W out /Q in Refrigeration cycle = Q in /W cycle
Solar Collector Condenser Pump Heat Exchange Solar Irradiation High-temp fluid Low-temp fluid High-temp steam Low-temp, pressurized water Shaft work output Mixed water & vapor Cooling water Turbine