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A simplified Flow Chart for Thermal Science

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1 A simplified Flow Chart for Thermal Science
Energy Conservation Irreversibility Availability Q:heat W: work Euler’s Eqn. Navier Stoke’s Eqn. Bernoulli’s Eqn Mech. Energy Cons. Note: this is only a brief overview of thermal science. Principles governing these physical phenomena have been greatly simplified in order to illustrate the inter-connectivity between disciplines.

2 A complete thermal system: Solar Power Plant
Heat received by collector due to solar irradiation. Heat transfer to working fluid (oil or molten salt) by convection and conduction. High-temperature fluid heats water into steam via heat exchanger. Steam flows through typical thermodynamic cycle(s) (ex. Rankine cycle) to generate electricity Cycle consists of a series of processes (ex. isentropic expansion in turbine, isentropic compression in pump, heat loss to condenser.) Work and energy balance will be calculated using 1st law of thermodynamics and thermal properties of working fluids. Fluid principles be used to analyze flow work in pump and turbine, pressure loss in piping system, convection in solar collectors. Thermal efficiency and availability calculated using 2nd law of thermodynamics

3 W: Work Solar Irradiation Wind Energy Fossil Fuels (Chemical Energy)
Electric Energy Thermal Energy Energy Exchange Q: Heat Transfer Thermal Systems: Solar Power Plant Wind Energy Power Plant Jet Engine Internal Combustion Engine Refrigeration & Heating Equipment Thermal Bubble Inkjet Printer Electronic Cooling Package Wasteful Byproducts: Thermal Pollution Air/Water Pollution Toxic Contamination DU: Internal Energy Change Generate Electrical Energy Transform into Mechanical Energy Electric Energy Input Inkjet Printing W: Work Work Input and Output

4 Understand fundamentals of thermal science
Energy Balance: Process DU = Q – W, Cycle DU = 0, Qcycle=Wcycle Thermal Efficiency: Power cycle h = Wout/Qin Refrigeration cycle b = Qin/Wcycle Relevant Issues: Understand fundamentals of thermal science Improve efficiency of existing thermal system Reduce environmental pollution Greenhouse effect, ozone depletion Devise innovative thermal technology Interdisciplinary knowledge is required Methodology used: System definition and modeling Thermal properties identification Apply engineering principles Mass, momentum, energy conservation First and Second laws of Thermodynamics Heat transfer modes

5 Turbine Solar Irradiation Solar Collector High-temp Low-temp fluid
Condenser Pump Heat Exchange Solar Irradiation High-temp fluid Low-temp steam Low-temp, pressurized water Shaft work output Mixed water & vapor Turbine Cooling water


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