The Charts Cause-and-EffectRun (Trend) Chart Measure Time Flow ChartPareto Chart Measure Histogram Measurement Measure Control Chart Measurement Time UCL LCL xx Measure Scatter Diagram
Cause and Effect: “Wrong Hospital Meals” GOAL, Memory Jogger Wrong meals served to patients on both shifts Equipment PeopleProcedures Policies Lack of funds Outdated “clothespin” system Fear of computers Unclear menu Training Antiquated Poor set-up Lack of time Unmotivated Overworked “Doctor’s Disease” Handwritten instructions poor Lack of awareness No system No feedback to person making mistakes Lack of staff Lack of attention in dietary Disciplinary policies Lack of funds Hiring policies in dietary Lack of emphasis
Flow Chart: “From Bed to Work” Sunrise NoNo NoNo Yes Start coffee Sleep late Wait NoNo NoNo NoNo NoNo Yes Shower Get Dressed Eat Breakfast Drive to Work Arrive at Work Iron Clothes Watch TV Take Bus Park & Walk Yes Bathroom Available Clothes Ready Read Paper Car Available Park in Lot Alarm goes off
Flow Chart 2: “P.C. Board Flow” Incoming Material: Components P.C. board Post Assembly Touch-up Pass Ship Q.C. Auto Test Q.C. Wave Solder and Cleaning Hand Assembly Rework/S crap Auto Insertion Vendor Repaired Use as is Rework/S crap Fail Pass
Flow Chart 3: A simple flow diagram - The mail order process YES NO BEGIN FILL OUT ORDER FORM RECEIVE ORDER; INSPECT IT SHIP GOODS TO CUSTOMER RECEIVE GOODS; INSPECT THEM PROCESS THE COMPLAINT COMPLAIN TO SUPPLIER SUBMIT ORDER END GOODS ACCEPT- ABLE? INFORMATION COMPLETE? RETURN ORDER FORM TO CUSTOMER MAIL ORDER SUPPLIER CUSTOMER (CLIENT)
Flow Chart 4: Ordering Supplies Yes No Item out of stock Item Delivered! Notify Sergio (Item and Quantity). Delivery varies from 4-8 weeks. Deliver Next Day. Mail to University Stores. Fill out Order Form. Procurement Issues a Purchase Order. Send to Procurement Office (RICE 501). Procurement faxes the order to vendor. Deliver next day. University Stocked Item? University Approved Vendor?
Control Chart Measurement Time UCL LCL xx Measure
Seven Helpful Charts a. Control, b. Cause-effect, c. Scatter diagram, d. Flow, e. Pareto, f. Run (trend), g. Histogram 1. There is a situation you are unhappy about. It is a complicated situation, so it is difficult to keep track of all of the variables in your head. 2. You have a complicated process you would like to improve. It’s not clear that everyone would identify the same steps. 3. You have identified a number of problems and want to work on the biggest problem first. 4. You are often late for work and want to understand why. 5. You have identified several reasons for why you are late for work and want to prioritize the list. 6. A hospital speculates that it has admissions “bulges” because of holidays. 7. You want to determine how frequently something occurs. 8. You want to plot a relationship between two variables. 9. You want to separate abnormal from normal variation 10. You want to determine whether a process is stable. 11. A Manufacturer wants to know if there is a correlation between shelf life and the stability of their product. 12. A print shop starts to receive complaints about the density of its print. The shop workers figured the density was always the same. 13. Your company submits many proposals to the federal government. They have identified a number of problems with the process and want to fix them in order of importance. 14. The ordering process takes too long and you want to understand why. 15. The rooms listed in the Schedule of Classes are sometimes not the rooms that courses end up meeting in.