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“Two Mexicos” Physical Geographies Mountainous— –steep slopes put arable land is at a premium –Generates ¼ of Mexico’s electricity Forested Distance.

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Presentation on theme: "“Two Mexicos” Physical Geographies Mountainous— –steep slopes put arable land is at a premium –Generates ¼ of Mexico’s electricity Forested Distance."— Presentation transcript:

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3 “Two Mexicos”

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5 Physical Geographies Mountainous— –steep slopes put arable land is at a premium –Generates ¼ of Mexico’s electricity Forested Distance from the capital (and the border w/US) Oil

6 Antecedents Loss of land and insertion of the state in the region during colonization, independence and revolution –Porfiriato:patronage and coercion –Revolution: Carranza’s base, but still about who would control indian’s labor –Cardenas 1960’s in the Lacandon –Ruiz and missionaries arrive –Involvement of students after 1968

7 1970’s Land redistribution in 1970’s –doesn’t happen as extensively in this area Hydroelectricity dams, oil, logging, and ranching, Extensive development of economic and political networks of peasants in Chiapas Strength and repression of regional government and disconnect from national scale Indigenous Congress of 1974

8 1980’s: The State notices Chiapas representation of its “problem” Global context –US –Mexico Regional Governor: Castellanos Dominguez Technocratic development plans –Plan del Sureste: isolation has precluded benefits of developent –Plan Chiapas: 83 million pesos

9 Response to the State Failure of interventions to reduce social and agrarian conflicts in Chiapas: EXACERBATED them Upping the Ante Birth of the Zapatistas

10 Salinas and Neoliberalism stolen election, computer fraud Concertacion: pactmaking 1989: International Coffee Organization Overvalued peso—domestic inflation > by 90% NAFTA/ (also IMF continued ) reforms Farming sector deflates Article 27:

11 Early 1990’s in the Lacandon forest % malnutrition cholera epidemic 1991 frontier is reached –Ranching invades “empty” land –overcrowding of available ejido land –timber ban in entire Lacandon forest repression in Chiapas continues –1992: Xi’Nich march: 400 Mexicans from Palenque- Mexico city: –Chiapas comes onto Mexican national consciousness— beatings and torture

12 Ya Basta! ”enough is enough” “the right to have rights” “rights, autonomy, and fulfillment of promise of Mexican revolution” No preconceived plan to “take over” government call for solidarity with others and the need for broad dialogue centrality of democracy

13 San Andres Accords basic respect for the diversity of the indigenous population of Chiapas; the conservation of the natural resources within the territories used and occupied by indigenous peoples; a greater participation of indigenous communities in the decisions and control of public expenditures; the participation of indigenous communities in determining their own development plans, as well as having control over their own administrative and judicial affairs; the autonomy of indigenous communities and their right of free determination in the framework of the State;

14 Since San Andres Accords failure Dec. 1997: massacre of 45 in Acteal 1998: stalemate based on conditions –free Zapatista “political prisoners” –end the heavy army presence and disarm paramilitaries in Chiapas; –offer practical proposals for reforms to make the political and judicial systems more accessible to indigenous people; –set up an independent commission to mediate in disputes in the state; –make a start on agreed constitutional reforms relating to indigenous rights

15 Recently in Southern Mexico 2001: World Economic Forum v. Zapatour expanded military presence in southern Mexico- especially Guerrero – ,000 government troops –30 local armed civilian and paramilitary groups: police, army, PRI, landowners –guerrillas –US involvement: ostensibly about drug trafficking deportation of human rights observers Governor: Pablo Salazar making strides


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